President Eisenhower

Anvita Devineni - Furnish-1

Election of Eisenhower

Election of 1952

  • Date of Election: November 4th, 1952
  • Eisenhower belonged to the Republican party
  • Democratic Party candidate was Adlai Stevenson
  • the election was not close; Eisenhower dominated with 442 electoral votes over Stevenson's 89 electoral votes
  • Eisenhower had a 55.2% popular vote over Stevenson's 44.3%

Election of 1956

  • Date of Election: November 6th, 1956
  • Eisenhower belonged to the Republican party
  • Democratic Party candidate was Adlai Stevenson
  • replay of the 1952 contest
  • election was not close; Eisenhower dominated even more with 35,000,000+ popular votes to Stevenson's 26,022,752

The Cold War

Cold War (n) - state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular.

Events in Eisenhower's Administration:

1953- CIA-backed coup in Iran

1954- CIA-backed coup in Guatemala Dien Bien Phu falls to pro-Communist forces Geneva Conference; splits Vietnam into two countries; SEATO is founded

1955- Warsaw Pact is signed

1956- Suez crisis erupts USSR puts down Hungarian Revolution; Eisenhower is reelected

1957- Eisenhower Doctrine is announced USSR launches Sputnik I (ID) - first artificial earth satellite launched by Moscow in 1957; led to the creation of NASA (ID) and the space race

1958- Congress passes National Defense Education Act

1960- U-2 incident embarrasses U.S. government

Joseph McCarthy

  • Senator Joseph McCarthy (ID) led the hunt for communists in Washington
  • helped Nixon to lead a full scale investigation to uncover communists in America; he was a media darling
  • Never had evidence against his targets; falsified everything
  • Censured by the Senate for misconducting unbecoming a member

Eisenhower and Desegregation in the South

Little Rock Crisis

  • a group of African American students were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957
  • initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school
  • after Eisenhower's intervention, they were allowed
  • very important in African-American Civil Rights Movement

Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (ID)

  • declared that state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students denied blacks equal opportunities
  • overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson
  • racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause in 14th Amendment

Montgomery Bus Boycott (ID)

  • after Rosa Parks (ID) is arrested
  • MLK rallied black community to conduct this boycott
  • seriously hurt bus companies and lasted more than a year
  • ended in 1956 when South Carolina declared segregated buses unconstitutional

Civil Rights Act of 1957

  • outlawed public segregation and discrimination
  • forbade racial discrimination in the workplace

Eisenhower's Republicanism Policies

  • "dyanamic conservatism" - be liberal with people, but conservative with the economy
  • guarded the US from "creeping socialism"
  • balancing federal budget
  • supported the transfer of control over offshore oil fields from the federal government to the states
  • encouraged private generating plants
  • sought to cancel the tribal preservation policies of the "Indian New Deal"
  • backed the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 ($27 million)
  • thousands of illegal Mexican immigrants were forced back to Mexico in Ike's 1954 roundup operation

Beginning of the Vietnam War

  • in early 1950's, nationalist movements wanted to throw the French out of Indochina
  • Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh, became increasingly communist
  • May 1954, a French garrison was trapped in the fortress of Dienbienphu in northwestern Vietnam
  • Eisenhower decided not to intervene; scared of war
  • Dienbienphu fell to the nationalists and the conference at Geneva halted Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
  • The pro-Western government in the south, led by Ngo Dinh Diem, was entrenched at Saigon as Vietnam-wide elections, which were promised by Ho Chi Minh, were never held
  • Eisenhower promised economic and military aid to the Diem regime of the south.

Space Race with the Soviets

  • October 4th, 1957 - Soviets launched the satellite Sputnik I
  • November, they launched Sputnik II with a dog on board
  • both satellites proved the Soviet's superior industrial production through communism
  • Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)