Standards

Genevieve Rowlands

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3.1 Explain Locard’s Exchange Principle, Frye Standard, and Daubert Ruling.

-Locards principle states that a criminal will bring something at the crime scene as evidence

-it also states that a criminal will leave with something from that crime scene

-not only fingerprints, but also hair, fibers and footprints

- These are "silents" way to know they were there because they can't 100% make sure they wont leave things like this

-This is also called trace evidence

- The Frye Standard is a test to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence

- It sees if these things can actually be used in court

- It sees if the expert that is used can be admissible

- It makes the courts look at papers and books to see if sources can be trusted

- This standard also checks and makes sure sources are valuable and pertinent to the case

- The Daubert Ruling makes sure that an expert witness is admissible in court

- They see if the witness can be trusted

- They also check and see if that witness is pertinent to the case

- This ruling also checks the legitimacy of these witnesses

- This is especially used during the testimony of this witness

3.2 Categorize the differing types of evidence, including testimonials and physical and individual, as well as class evidence

- Testimonials are used as hearsay but can also be trusted even though they are not physical evidence

- Physical evidence is tangible evidence and it can be seen

- This includes fingerprints and hair and other real things

- Individual evidence can see specifically see who the evidence belongs to

- This includes fingerprints, hair and DNA

- DNA at a crime scene is individual evidence becuse no two people can have the same DNA

-Hair is also considered individual evidence, unless it does not have the root, then it is class evidence beause it will not have the DNA

- Class evidence can see what kind of people the evidence could pertain to

- This is like you see a shoe print, you can know the size and maybe the brand but not specifically whose foot

- This also includes, shoe prints, tire prints and what weapon

- You can tell what kind of weapon is used but unless it is custom and there is only one it would be class and not individual evidence

- Class evidence is sill used in court it just is not as specific and sometimes not as helpful

- Testimonials are used in court but also they can be unreliable

- Though the person must be under oath they could lie and omit things that could be pertinent to the case

- Also the person could be talking about an experience that they do not remember as well as they think they do and then it cannot be fully trusted

4.1 Explain the process of performing an autopsy.

- First the dead body arrives at the morgue.

- The body’s identity is confirmed, assigned an identification number, and given a toe tag, which is a cardboard ticket with all of the corpse’s pertinent information written on it

- The body is photographed from head to toe, front and back, in the clothing it was wearing when it arrived at the morgue, and then naked

- The body is weighed on a scale, and the weight is recorded. The body is also measured for length, and completely X-rayed

- The fingerprints of the corpse are taken. In instances in which hands and/or fingers are missing parts are duly noted

- Any and all moles, wounds, tattoos, scars (including surgical scars), and other physical body anomalies are noted and examined

- Body fluids (blood, urine, etc) are withdrawn from the body and subjected to comprehensive toxicology tests

- The coroner makes a huge, full body-length “Y” incision that opens up the entire front of the body

- They then remove all of the internal organs

- Then they record all of the organs that are in the body and check them all.

- Examine those organs that are just taken out of the body

- They also examine the brain

- They check for how the person died

- Cause of death is determined

- Sew up the body