Verbrates

By: Makayla Sanchez

Fertilization

Fertilization occurs when the sperm cell joins the egg cell to create a new organism. There are 2 types of fertilization. Internal Fertilization, and External Fertilization. Internal Fertilization occurs inside the body of the organism. Ex: Birds, Snakes and Humans. External Fertilization occurs outside of the body of an organism. Ex: Trout, Frogs and Sponges.

Fish

Fish live in the water,have fins, scales and breathe in oxygen using there gills. Most fish reproduce with external fertilization. Fish are cold-blooded organisms, this means the environment around them regulates their body temperature. There are 3 different types of fish. There is Jawless Fish, Cartilaginous Fish, and Bony Fish.
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Jawless Fish

Jawless Fish have no scales and no jaws. Their mouths contain structure for grabbing, scrapping and sucking their food. Their skeletons are made up of cartilage. Ex: Lampreys, Hagfish.
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Cartilaginous Fish

Cartilaginous fish have jaws, scales and skeleton made of cartilag. They are normally carnivores, which means they eat meat. Ex: Sharks, Skates and Rays.
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Bony Fish

Bony fish have jaws, gills, scales, fins and skeleton made of hard bones. Bony fish make up 95% of all fish species. They live in salt and fresh water. Ex: Clown fish, Seahorses, and trout
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Amphibians

Amphibians begin their lives in the water, most spend their adult lives on land and return to water to reproduce. They are ectoherms, cold blooded, so they have to change their surroundings to maintain body temperature. Amphibians hatch from eggs with gills that help them breath underwater. Then they go through metamorphosis to their adult form and develop lungs and legs. Amphibians have smooth slimy skin. They DO NOT have scales. Ex: Frogs, Toads, and salamanders
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Reptiles

Reptiles are ectothermic, they lay eggs, have scaly skin, and have lungs. They have adapted for life on land. Their skin, kidneys, and eggs have adapted to conserve water. Ex: Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, Alligators and Crocodiles

Birds

Birds are Endothermic, they build nests, have feathers, a 4 chambered heart, and they lay eggs. Birds swallow small stones that go to the gizzard to help grind their food since they don't have teeth. Bones are nearly hollow making the bird lightweight. That's why they have wings and feathers. Not all birds can fly. 60 living species of birds that cannot fly.
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Mammals

All mammals are endothermic, have a 4 chambered heart, covered with fur or hair. There are 2 groups of mammals. There is Marsupials, and placental mammals and Ex: Kangaroos, mice, dolphins, lions, rabbits, fox, bats, moles and many more.