What is an Earthquake?
Sometimes earthquakes have smaller quakes that follow, these are called foreshocks. Scientists can't tell if these are foreshocks until the larger earthquake happens. These are known as the mainshock. These shocks always have after shocks that follow. Depending on the size of these mainshock's, aftershocks can continue for weeks, months, or even years.
What Causes Earthquakes and Where do They Occur?
Plate boundaries are made up of many faults, these are where the majority of earthquakes occur. The edges of the plates are rough, this means that get stuck when the other plates continue moving. When these plates move far enough, the edges unstick on one of these faults. These are known as earthquakes.
How are Earthquakes Measured?
How do Scientists Locate Where Earthquakes Occur?
This size of a earthquake is called the magnitude. This means that there's only one magnitude per earthquake.
Safety Procedures for Earthquakes
To prepare for an earthquake, it's a good idea to become aware of your surrounds and evacuation plans. To do this, you should pick a safe place in each room of your frequently visited locations. A safe place would be under a piece of furniture or against an interior wall away from windows, and tall furniture that could fall on you. Practice drop, cover, and hold. It's also a good idea to keep equipment useful for emergencies, like a flashlight and safe clothing. Make sure your home is up to earthquake standards. This may include being anchored to foundations, bolting and bracing water heaters and tall furniture, ect. Also make sure to install strong latches and bolts to furniture, this will ensure the utmost safety.
What should I do during an earthquake?
If you're currently inside when shaking occurs, drop, cover, and hold on. Make sure you move as little as possible. If you're on a bed, stay there, curl up, and hold on. Protect yourself with surrounds, like pillows and blankets. Make sure to stay away from windows or anything else that can cut you.
If you're outside when shaking occurs, find a clear spot and drop to the ground. Stay there until the shaking stops, make sure you're away from buildings, power lines, trees, street lights, ect. If you're in a vehicle, pull over to a close clear location and stop. Avoid bridges, overpasses, and power lines to the best of your ability. If something dangerous falls on your vehicle, like a powerline, don't get out, wait for assistance.
What do I do after an earthquake?
After an earthquake, be aware that disaster may continue. This means that you need to prepare for potential after shocks, landslides, or even tsunamis. Each time you feel an aftershock, drop, cover, and hold on. These shocks can occur for long periods of times. Before you do anything, check yourself for injuries and get treatment if necessary. This includes if you're going to help an injured or trapped person. Check for damage around your house and make sure everyone is out of the house if it's deemed unsafe. Listen to portable battery-operated or hand-cranked radio for emergency information and instructions. Immediately clean up anything spilled that's deemed dangerous. Lastly, make sure you're aware of your surrounds-outside and inside too.