Indigenous Studies Resource Bank

Curriculum Supports for and by Dufferin-Peel Teachers

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Land Acknowledgement

Dufferin-Peel schools are situated on the traditional lands of the Mississaugas of the Credit and the Haudenosaunee people of the Six Nations of the Grand River.

In this document, you will find:

  1. Terminology and Definitions
  2. Dufferin-Peel Resource Collections
  3. Recommended Readings for Secondary English Classes
  4. Historical & Cultural Context Resources
  5. Experiential Learning Suggestions

1. Terminology & Definitions

How to Talk about Indigenous People

CBC News (2017)

"It's National Aboriginal History Month. Ever wonder how to use the proper terms when referring to Indigenous Peoples? Inuk journalist Ossie Michelin has a friendly how-to guide." To read more:

Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis & Inuit Issues in Canada

Chelsea Vowel (2016)

“Delgamuukw. Sixties Scoop. Bill C-31. Blood quantum. Appropriation. Two-Spirit. Status. TRC. RCAP. FNPOA. Pass and permit. Numbered Treaties. Terra nullius. The Great Pace. The Daniels decision…. Are you familiar with the terms listed above? In Indigenous Writes, Chelsea Vowel, writer, lawyer, intellectual, opens and important dialogue about these (and more) concepts and the wide social beliefs associated with the relationship between Indigenous peoples and Canada. In 31 essays, Chelsea explores the Indigenous experience from the time of contact to the present, through five categories – Terminology of Relationships; Culture and Identity; Myth Busting; State Violence; and Land, Learning, Law and Treaties. She answers the questions that many people have on these topics to spark further conversations at home, in the classroom, and in the larger community." Suitable for educators or excerpted for ENG3U/4U students.

The chapters are concise, yet filled with facts; written with humour that simmers with anger, and a conversational tone that makes it very readable to get the 101.

This resource, created by Bob Joseph, provides guidelines for usage of Indigenous terminology, (both how-to and helpfully, how-not-to use).

Bob Joseph is a member of Gwawaenuk Nation and founder of Indigenous Corporate Training Inc., His consulting firm has provided training for individuals and organizations on Indigenous relations since 1994.

Joseph notes that "terms for Indigenous Peoples have evolved over time and are continuing to evolve." His website offers nuanced usage guidelines on terms such as:

  • Aboriginal Peoples
  • First Nations
  • Indian (including Status, Non-Status, and Treaty Indian)
  • Indigenous
  • Inuit
  • Métis
  • Native

2. Dufferin-Peel Catholic Distrcit School Board Resource Collections

The Marrow Thieves

Cherie Dimaline (2017)

In a futuristic world ravaged by global warming, people have lost the ability to dream, and the dreamlessness has led to widespread madness. The only people still able to dream are North America's Indigenous people, and it is their marrow that holds the cure for the rest of the world. But getting the marrow, and dreams, means death for the unwilling donors. Driven to flight, a fifteen-year-old and his companions struggle for survival, attempt to reunite with loved ones and take refuge from the "recruiters" who seek them out to bring them to the marrow-stealing "factories." Winner of 2017 Governor General's Award.

Suitable for study in ENG1D/1P and NBE3U/3C.

Click here for Teacher Resources

Finding Cleo

Where is Cleo? Taken by child welfare workers in the 1970's and adopted in the U.S., the young Cree girl's family says she was stolen, raped and murdered while trying to hitchhike back home to Saskatchewan. Host Connie Walker joins their search.

Suitable for study in ENG3U or NBE3U/3C. * Because of the sensitive content of this podcast, PD is provided for DPCDSB teachers who plan to use this resource.

Click here for a complete set of teacher resources created by DPCDSB educators.

Indian Horse

Richard Wagamese (2012)

A powerful and compelling novel told from the perspective of Saul Indian Horse. Saul is a damaged Ojibway man who struggles to understand the demons of his childhood experience at St. Jerome’s Residential School and separation from his family, language, and culture. His one release is through the game of hockey, which he plays with a prodigious gift. The descriptions of the sport are vivid and inspiring just as Saul’s personal journey is both heartbreaking and uplifting.

Suitable for study in ENG2D1.

Click here for a complete set of unit resources developed by DPCDSB educators. The film was released on in 2017 and contains many useful resources.

Motorcycles and Sweetgrass

Drew Hayden Taylor (2010)

This trickster tale is a modern comedy that playfully examines contemporary Anishinabe culture and legends of Nanabush as they intersect with non-Indigenous culture. Comedy is used as a tool to explore darker themes, cultural stereotypes, and gender roles. An excellent companion piece is Taylor’s article, "There's a Trickster Behind Every Nanabush"

Suitable for study in ENG3U1.

DPCDSB teachers can click on the FYI Portal link to access a series of three-part lesson plans to accompany the novel.

“Inuksuk: Sharing Experiences of Nunavut” iBook

Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board (2016) by Mary Ellen Gucciardi, James Flaherty, Jennifer Pouw, Paula Nevins, Maureen Carolan, Joanna Newton

Recently named a Successful Practice by Indspire, this interactive eBook provides readers the opportunity to learn about Inuit culture through the exploration of Nunavut geography, culture, history, government and activism. This resource includes video clips, panoramic and 3D images, sound bites of the Inuktitut language and syllabic script and quizzes to engage student inquiry. The eBook offers an interactive digital platform where students are able to search through the book and inquire further based on their interest, promoting an inquiry based approach to learning. It is interactive in nature and can be adapted for students from K-12. Available for free download on iTunes or at

Lessons from the Earth

"Lessons From the Earth is a resource guide for educators that provides a practical application of Indigenous Knowledge into the classroom. The focus of learning is grounded in a traditional Anishinaabe story, Jiig Nong Aadsookan, The Fisher Story. Included are sample lessons and video modules that support the traditional teachings embedded within the story. Lessons From the Earth is a provocation for student inquiry into topics such as the environment, First Peoples of Canada, Science, Social Studies, as well as important concepts such as love, respect and balance"

3. Other Recommended Readings for Secondary English Classes

* All book descriptions have been quoted directly from the book covers. Additional notes for teachers and suggested grade levels have been added.


Keeper 'n Me

Richard Wagamese (2006)

As a small child, Garnet Raven is taken from his Ojibway family on their reserve and cast into a series of non-indigenous foster homes, part of the so-called “Sixties Scoop.” As a teenager, he leaves this life and drifts on the streets of Toronto, eventually finding himself in jail. A letter from his long-lost Native family changes the course of his life and the rest of the novel details Garnet’s discovery of his family, culture and spirituality, particularly through the mentorship of Keeper, an elder and knowledge keeper. Suitable for study in ENG3U1/ENG4U1.

The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian

Sherman Alexie (2007)

The journal entries of Junior (Arnold Spirit) mix comedy and pathos as he describes his mixed up life on the Spokane Indian Reserve and his attempt to alter its course by attending the all-white high school off-reserve. There, the only other “Indian” there is the school mascot and he is viewed as “too Indian” at school and “too White” at home. Junior is a budding cartoonist and the novel contains many of his funny and touching illustrations of his experience with stereotypes, discrimination, and identity politics. This is ultimately a very affirming story. Lesson resources available on FYI Portal - First Nations, Metis Inuit Education - Native Studies English Grade 11. An excellent article and interview with the author can be found at Indian du Jour - Sherman Alexie on NPR Suitable for ENG3C1/ENG4C1/NBE3C1/NBE3U1

The Night Wanderer

Drew Hayden Taylor (2007)

A novel for young readers. The novel lives up to its subtitle, delivering shivers and chills in an Anishinabe setting. The protagonists are Tiffany Hunter, a 16-year-old resident of the fictional Otter Lake Reserve in current-day Ontario, and Pierre L’Errant, a mysterious man of Anishinabe ancestry who arrives from Europe. Tiffany’s got problems with her dad, her schoolwork, and her non-native boyfriend. Pierre’s waging an elemental good vs. evil battle as he seeks an honourable end to his existence as a vampire. They are drawn into each other’s lives when Pierre becomes a boarder at Tiffany’s home.

Suitable for study in ENG2P1/ENG3C1/NBE3C


Joseph Boyden (2016)

This novella tells the story of “an Ojibwe boy [who] runs away from a North Ontario Indian School, not realizing just how far away home is. Along the way he’s followed by Manitous, spirits of the forest who comment on his plight, cajoling, taunting, and ultimately offering him a type of comfort on his difficult journey back to the place he was so brutally removed from.” Suitable for study for grade 10-12 students. Boyden’s place on this list has become contentious due to questions about his indigeneity:

Suitable for ENG2D1/ENG3U1/ENG4U1/NBE3C1/NBE3U1 as supplemental reading.

The Secret Path

Gord Downie and Jeff Lemire (2016)

"This graphic novel brings to life the historical account of Chanie Wenjack and his heartbreaking attempt to walk home after escaping from the Cecilia Jeffrey Indian Residential School, not realizing how far from home he really was. The illustrations and accompanying song lyrics and short film make for a unique entry point into the story of one individual who represents the senseless death of so many indigenous youth during the residential school era. All proceeds go toward the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation at the University of Manitoba. Further resources can be found at, and Suitable for study for grade 10-12 students. Suitable for ENG2D1/ENG2P1/ENG3C1 as supplemental reading.


An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature

Edited by Daniel David Moses, Terry Goldie, and Armand Garnet Ruffo (2013)

"Twenty years after the publication of its groundbreaking first edition, [this anthology] continues to provide the most comprehensive coverage of Canadian Native literature available in one volume. Emphasizing the importance of orature within the tradition, the anthology presents traditions songs of the Southern First Nations and the Inuit before moving on to showcase the diverse array of short stories, poems, plays, letters, and essays crafted by exceptional writers from a wide variety of periods and backgrounds.”

Excellent discussion and context contained in the editors' prefaces.

Strength and Struggle: Perspectives from First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples in Canada

This collection "includes a rich array of graphic novel panels, speech excerpts, song and rap lyrics, recipes, interview, short stories, poetry, photographs, graphic art, articles, essays, and other pieces that will have you laughing, crying, talking, and thinking. It's a true celebration of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis writing and art." Teacher's Guide also available.

Moving Forward: A Collection about Truth and Reconciliation

This collection "supports the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's call to action in this 88-page anthology from McGraw-Hill Ryerson's iLit Series. This collection includes short stories, poems, essays, and art created by First Nations, Inuit, and Métis authors and artists on the topics of truth and reconciliation as they relate to residential schools. Each selection includes Before, During, and After questions and activities that support English Language Arts grades 10 to 12 curricula from across the country."

Short Story Collections

Take us to your Chief (And other Stories)

Drew Hayden Taylor (2013)

“Classic sci-fi stories with a contemporary First Nations outlook….The nine stories in this collection span familiar topics of science fiction—from peaceful aliens to hostile invaders; from space travel to time travel; from government conspiracies to connections across generations. Yet Taylor’s First Nations perspective draws fresh parallels, likening the cultural implications of alien contact to those of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas …. Variously mysterious, magical and humourous, Take us to Your Chief is the perfect mesh of nostalgically 1950s-esque science fiction and modern First Nations discourse.” Suitable for study for ENG1D/ENG2D/ENG3U/ENG4U/NBE3C1/NBE3U1.


Toronto at Dreamer's Rock - Education is our Right

Drew Hayden Taylor (1990)

Toronto at Dreamer's Rock is a moving portrayal of a teenage boy who is torn between the traditions of his people, which he only vaguely understands, and the lure of modern life. His magical encounters with two members of his tribe – one from 400 years in the past and one from the future – make him aware of how little he has thought about what it means to be an Indian. Could be a good pre-cursor to studying Motorcycles and Sweetgrass.

Education is our Right borrows from the familiar story of Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, but in this version the spirits of Education Past, Present and Future attempt to show the Minister of Indian Affairs the error of his ways. Suitable for study in ENG2D1/ ENG3U1/ ENG3C1/NBE3C

Berlin Blues

Drew Hayden Taylor (1998)

"A consortium of German developers shows up on the fictional Otter Lake Reserve with a seemingly irresistible offer to improve the local economy: the creation of 'OjibwayWorld,' a Native theme park designed to attract European tourists to this new destination resort, causing hilarious personal and political divisions within the local community. The Berlin Blues concludes Drew Hayden Taylor’s Blues quartet, showcasing contemporary stereotypes of First Nations people, including a fair number of these that originate from Indigenous communities themselves, to the often outraged delight of his international audiences." Suitable for study for ENG3U/ENG4U/NBE3U classes.

Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth

Drew Hayden Taylor (1998)

A sequel to Someday, this is the emotional story of a woman’s struggle to acknowledge her birth family. Grace, a Native girl adopted by a White family, is asked by her birth sister to return to the Reserve for their mother’s funeral. Afraid of opening old wounds, Grace must find a place where the culture of her past can feed the truth of her present. Drew Hayden Taylor has a large collection of plays, listed at Suitable for ENG3U/4U.


Drew Hayden Taylor (2000)

"A very liberal contemporary couple — Angel, an urban Native science fiction writer, and Colleen, a “non-practicing” Jewish intellectual who teaches Native literature — hosts a dinner party. The guests at this little “sitcom” soirée are couples that represent what by now have become the clichéd extremes of both societies: Angel’s former radical Native activist buddies and Colleen’s environmentally concerned vegetarian / veterinarian friends. The menu is, of course, the hosts’ respectful attempt at shorthand for the irreconcilable cultural differences about to come to a head during the evening: moose roast and vegetarian lasagna." ENG3U1/ENG4U1/ENG4C1

Poetry Collections

Runaway Dreams

Richard Wagamese (2011)

A useful companion piece to Wagamese’s novels can be found in this collection of poetry which examines themes ranging from the traditional worldview of his elders to his own autobiographical accounts of being a foster child, a victim of abuse, and a runaway. “Yet even in the most desperate situations, Wagamese shows us Canada as seen through the eyes and soul of a well-worn traveler, with his love of country, his love of people.” Works well as a companion piece to Indian Horse or Keeper ‘N Me Suitable for study for ENG2D/ENG3U/ENG4U/NBE3U.

Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology

Edited by Jeannette C. Armstrong and Lally Grauer, (2001)

This is “the only collection of its kind. It brings together the poetry of many author whose work has not previously been published in book form alongside that of critically acclaimed poets, thus offering a record of Native cultural revival as it emerged through poetry from the 1960s to the present. The poets included here adapt English to accommodate Native traditions, insights, and rhythms; they use passion, oratory and, above all, a sense of play. Native Poetry in Canada suggests both a history of struggle to be heard and the wealth of Native Cultures in Canada today.” Suitable for study for ENG2D/ENG3U/ENG4U ENG3C/ENG4C/NBE3C/NBE3U.

Calling Down the Sky

Rosanna Deerchild (2015)

"Rosanna Deerchild, an award-winning Cree author and broadcaster, poetically recounts her mother’s residential school experience and the resulting intergenerational trauma. Through this, she depicts not only devastation but also resilience." Suitable for study for ENG2D/ ENG3U/ ENG4U/ENG3C/ENG4C.


Janet Marie Rogers (2011)

A collection of free verse poems on the themes of Love, Politics and Identity. Daniel David Moses comments of these poems: “it’s evident Janet Rogers is a spiritual descendent of Pauline Johnson, very much working aesthetically in the now. Rogers’ poems, personal or philosophical, outraged or satirical, are burgeoning lyrics, alive to her and our place in this Native land. Suitable poems to select for any English class to help contextualize longer studies.

Historical Poetry on “Being Indian”

For a more historical look at poetry, Pauline Johnson of Six Nations, worked both the literary style of English poetry into the myth, legend, and oral tradition of Mohawk culture of the early twentieth century. She played the role of both “Indian princess” and British upper class lady. Her audience was mainly non-Indigenous. A famous example of her poetry is "The Song My Paddle Sings" An interesting counterpoint would be the poems of Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Duncan Cambpell Scott whose racist colonial thinking of the time is reflected in poems such as "Indian Place Names" or "The Onondaga Madonna" for depicting native people as a noble but doomed race. Armand Garnet Ruffo’s satirical look at Grey Owl: The Mystery of Archie Belaney in the poem, Annie Espaniel, 1923, regarding the white man who tried to pass himself off as a “real Indian” makes for another intriguing entry point to cultural appropriation and identity politics.


The Truth about Stories

Thomas King (2003)

“In his 2003 Massey lecture, award-winning author and scholar Thomas King looks at the breadth and depth of Native experience and imagination. Beginning with Native oral stories, King weaves his way through literature and history, religion and politics, popular culture and social protest, in an effort to make sense of North America's relationship with its Aboriginal peoples.” See CBC Radio’s Ideas with Paul Kennedy for the audio of King’s Massey Lecture at Suitable for educators or excerpted for ENG3U/4U students.

The Inconvenient Indian

Thomas King (2012)

Though it is dealing with history, this is not a dry history text book. Rather it is told with the wit, warmth and wisdom of a true storyteller. King explains that “for me at least, writing a novel is buttering warm toast, while writing history is herding porcupines with your elbows. As a result, although The Inconvenient Indian is fraught with history, the underlying narrative is a series of conversations and arguments I’ve been having with myself and others for most of my adult life, and if there is a methodology . . . it draws more on storytelling techniques that historiography. A good historian would have tried to keep biases under control. A good historian would have tried to keep personal anecdotes in check. A good historian would have provided footnotes. I have not” (xii). A very engaging read which will provide historical context, discussion on stereotypes and more. Suitable as a resource for educators or ENG4U students, perhaps excerpts only such as “Like Cowboys and Indians” or the interview between King and CBC broadcaster, Shelagh Rogers.

Me Funny

Drew Hayden Taylor (2005)

An award-winning playwright, columnist and comedy sketch creator, Drew Hayden Taylor has spent fifteen years writing and researching Aboriginal humour. For this book, he invited a stellar cast of writers from a variety of fields—among them such celebrated wordsmiths as Thomas King, Louise Profeit-LeBlanc and Tomson Highway—to take a look at what makes Aboriginal humour tick.” Suitable for educators or excerpted for ENG3U/4U students.


The Reason You Walk

Wab Kinew (2015)

Wab Kinew’s memoir tells his story of reconnecting with both his troubled relationship with his father as well as with his culture and his own true path in life. It is a first person account that resonates with the personal and cultural identity politics of the contemporary Indigenous generation. “From his unique vantage point, he offers an inside view of what it means to be an educated Aboriginal living in a country that is just beginning to wake up to its indigenous history and living presence.” Suitable for educators or excerpted for ENG2D/3U/4U/3C/4C students.

One Native Life

Richard Wagamese (2008)

This memoir “is about the things Wagamese has learned as a human being, a man and an Ojibway in his fifty-two years on the planet. This is a book about roots: uncovering them, tending them, watching life spring up all around you. We are neighbours on this earth, Wagamese has come to realize. Once we understand that, it’s all one great, grand tale.” Suitable for educators or excerpted for students; would make a good companion piece for Wagamese’s fiction and poetry.

4. Historical & Cultural Context

Resources about Canada’s Reserve Communities:

Cazabon, Andree “Third World Canada” (2010)

This documentary examines a northern First Nations community of in the aftermath of the suicide of three parents. It explores the impact of third world conditions on the children left behind and a community’s brave commitment to looking after them. This documentary serves as first hand insight into the conditions of Canada’s reserve communities and is suitable for Intermediate-Senior level courses. See the trailer and order a copy of the documentary at

This film can be used in conjunction with 4 Seasons of Reconciliation Education Resource (, a unique teaching unit created with the intention of renewing relationships between Indigenous Peoples and Canadians.

Kairos Blanket Exercise

From the site

The KAIROS Blanket Exercise is an interactive learning experience that teaches the Indigenous rights history we’re rarely taught. Blanket Exercise participants take on the roles of Indigenous peoples in Canada. Standing on blankets that represent the land, they walk through pre-contact, treaty-making, colonization and resistance. They are directed by facilitators representing a narrator (or narrators) and the European colonizers. Participants are drawn into the experience by reading scrolls and carrying cards which ultimately determine their outcomes. By engaging on an emotional and intellectual level, the Blanket Exercise effectively educates and increases empathy. Ideally, the exercise is followed by a debriefing session in which participants have the opportunity to discuss the experience as a group. This often takes the form of a talking circle.

*It is suggested that this exercise is run in conjunction with a visit from a community partner, Elder or Knowledge Keeper

Resources on Identity

Deer, Tracey “Club Native” (2008)

National Film Board of Canada, 2008. (78 mins)

From the NFB website: “In Club Native, Deer looks deeply into the history and present-day reality of Aboriginal identity. With moving stories from a range of characters from her Kahnawake Reserve - characters on both sides of the critical blood-quantum line - she reveals the divisive legacy of more than a hundred years of discriminatory and sexist government policy and reveals the lingering “blood quantum” ideals, snobby attitudes and outright racism that threaten to destroy the fabric of her community.”

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network

This site offers current news coverage of issues impacting Aboriginal people, as well as links to full episode programming and series that include First Nations, Métis and Inuit storylines and characters available at and

8th Fire: Aboriginal Peoples, Canada and the Way Forward

From the 8th Fire Dispatches (20 short films produced by Indigenous reporters and filmmakers), videos and maps, this site is valuable for all students in Grades 5-12. There is also a multi-episode documentary series available within this toolkit and a teacher’s guide which address many current issues pertinent to the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. This guide can be located at includes blackline masters and background information for each of the four episodes.

Peel Aboriginal Network

This network is a Friendship Centre located in Mississauga, Ontario and offers support to Indigenous People throughout the Peel Region. Services include traditional healing and wellness, workshops, and crafting as well as housing services, employment counselling and family mediation, this centre is a wealth of knowledge for students and educators.

Stereotypes & Media Resources

Diamond, Neil “Reel Injun” (2009)

This feature-length documentary, offers an insightful look at the portrayal of North American Indigenous people throughout a century of cinema. Featuring hundreds of clips from classics as well as recent releases, the film follows the evolution of the “Hollywood Indian." This documentary is suitable for Senior level courses. Available with Teacher’s Guide through the National Film Board at

Resources on Inuit Peoples

Inuksuk: Sharing Experiences of Nunavut

Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board (2016) by Mary Ellen Gucciardi, James Flaherty, Jennifer Pouw, Paula Nevins, Maureen Carolan, Joanna Newton

Recently named a Successful Practice by Indspire, this interactive eBook provides readers the opportunity to learn about Inuit culture through the exploration of Nunavut geography, culture, history, government and activism. This resource includes video clips, panoramic and 3D images, sound bites of the Inuktitut language and syllabic script and quizzes to engage student inquiry. The eBook offers an interactive digital platform where students are able to search through the book and inquire further based on their interest, promoting an inquiry based approach to learning. It is interactive in nature and can be adapted for students from K-12. Available for free download on iTunes or at

Greenwald, Barry “The Experimental Eskimos” (2009)

This documentary recounts the life of three Inuit boys who were part of an experiment conducted by the Canadian government in the 1960s which removed them from their families to live with families in Ottawa with the intent to have them attend non-Inuit schools. The consequences for the boys, their families, their identity, and their culture were completely disregarded. This documentary is suitable for Intermediate and Senior level courses. Available at

Lepage, Marquise “Martha of the North” (2008)

This documentary retells the story of the High Artic Relocation through the eyes of Martha Flaherty. It investigates the displacement of Inuit families by the Canadian government as an attempt to establish sovereignty in the Far North. This documentary is suitable for Intermediate and Senior level courses. Available in English, French and Inuktitut through the National Film Board at

Arnaquq-Baril, Alethea. "Angry Inuk" (2016)

"In her award-winning documentary, director Alethea Arnaquq-Baril joins a new tech-savvy generation of Inuit as they campaign to challenge long-established perceptions of seal hunting. Armed with social media and their own sense of humour and justice, this group is bringing its own voice into the conversation and presenting themselves to the world as a modern people in dire need of a sustainable economy."

Eskimo Identification Tags

This five page article written by Bob Joseph in 2016 outlines terminology, historical naming customs, and the reasons why “Eskimo Identification Tags” replaced traditional Inuit names is posted on the Indigenous Corporate Training Inc. website. Included is a succinct timeline and brief summary of the identification tags. Suitable for educators and secondary students.

Susan Aglukark's song "Eskimo Identification Tags"

"E-186" on the Unsung Heroes album is a song by Susan Aglukark about the Eskimo Identification Tags era. Although it is a dark song it ends with a positive message for the future. The 5:30 minute music video offers photos of E-disks. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

Lucie Idlout's poem/song "e5-770: my mother's name"

“e5-770: my mother’s name” was originally a poem written by Lucie Idlout about the Eskimo Identification Tags era and shares her mother’s experience as a result of this government policy. In this video, the poem is sung by the poet. It is suitable for educators and students Grade 7-12.

Government Apology for High Arctic Relocations

This site includes the August 18, 2010 apology from the Government for the relocation of the Inuit to the High Arctic. Exact wording of the apology, as read by Honourable John Duncan, is dictated. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12

Okpik's Dream: A Documentary

This 2014 documentary, available in Inuktitut and English, retells the story of Harry Okpik, who grew up dreaming about becoming a dog musher. Greatly impacted by the Dog Slaughter of the 1960s, his time at residential school, and being a victim of a shooting accident, the film tells how Harry was hospitalized and became estranged from his community, while learning to cope with the decision to amputate his injured leg. Filmed over several seasons, viewers recount Harry’s incredible life journey as he prepares his dog team for the grueling Ivakkak dog sled race across the Arctic. Written and directed by Laura Rietveld, this film is suitable for educators and senior level students. The website offers a great deal of background info on the history of the Sled Dog Massacre. There is also a link for purchasing the DVD.

Qikiqtani Truth Commission: Investigating the Sled Dog Massacres

This is the website for the Qikiktani Truth Commission, established in 2002 to investigate social policy and language issues related to the sled dog massacres. In 2004, the Commission began compiling eyewitness statements and information about this practice in light of the RCMP’s assertion that this episode of history did not occur. The QT Commission, Inuit-sponsored and led, released their comprehensive report in 2015. Contained in this report are eye witness accounts, pictures, and maps to support the existence of this practice. Also on this website, are other notable reports, media sources, and resources. Suitable for educators and senior level students.

The Creation of the Territory of Nunavut

The CBC archives offer an in-depth look and analysis into the Creation of the Territory of Nunavut. With recordings, photographs, interviews and newsreel, this site investigates the creation of the new Territory from many different perspectives. These archives investigate the history, the controversies, and other pertinent information that led to this momentous occasion. This site also offers resources for teachers. It is suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

Nunavut Land Claims

This brief article offers readers a condensed history of the Nunavut Agreements and ten interesting facts about the process. With everything from land to infrastructure, these ten facts offer readers a quick insight into Nunavut as a territory. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement

This link provides readers with the 93-page “Plain Language” version of the Nunavut Land Claims agreement. Created by Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, this guide offers insight into settlement areas, conservation areas, trusts and resource-sharing agreements as well as a multitude of other important issues covered under the agreement. Punctuated with stunning art from Inuit artists, the guide offers a concise overview of the Land Claims agreement in a straight forward manner complete with definitions and side-bar explanations. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

Resources on Residential Schools

McLaren, Nadia “Muffins for Granny” (2007)

This documentary includes the filmmaker interviewing seven First Nations elders about their experiences in residential schools as she tries to further understand her own Ojibway grandmother who was forced to attend one of these schools. The documentary mixes animation with human faces and home movie footage for an honest look at a difficult chapter of Canadian history. This documentary is suitable for Intermediate and Senior level courses. Available through Mongrel Media at

Wolochatiuk, Tim “We Were Children” (2012)

In this feature film, the impact of the Canadian government’s residential school system is conveyed through the eyes of two children who were forced to face hardships beyond their years Suitable for Intermediate and Senior level students, this film gives voice to a national tragedy and demonstrates the incredible resilience of the human spirit. Available with Teacher’s Guide through the National Film Board at

Aboriginal Healing Foundation

Resources include a timeline of residential school events, a bibliography of books, videos and articles on the topic, and a printable poster series available at and

100 Years of Loss

Resources included on this site are targeted towards Canadian youth aged 11-18. Developed in 2010-2011 by the Legacy of Hope Foundation, this resource has been created to support educators looking for classroom ready tools for teaching about residential schools with lessons, blackline masters, answer sheets, and discussion guides. This resource also includes timelines, videos, and a reading list for teachers to access.

Project of Heart

This website outlines the inquiry-based and collaborative project that recognizes the families and communities who lost children as a a result of Indian residential schools. The project is explained in great detail through six steps and includes extensive resources including films, maps, survivor testimonies, and examples of past projects. Suitable for Grades 6-12.

Resources on Social Justice:

Roque, Sara “Six Miles Deep” (2010)

This documentary investigates the 2006 blockade at Caledonia by Members of the Iroquois Confederacy to prevent the construction of a housing development on their traditional territory at Six Nations of the Grand River. This documentary is suitable for Intermediate and Senior level courses. Available through the National Film Board at

Walsh, Christine “Finding Dawn” (2006)

This documentary by the acclaimed Métis filmmaker illustrates the deep historical, social and economic factors that contribute to the epidemic of violence against Aboriginal women in this country. This documentary is suitable for Senior level courses. Teacher’s guide and DVD aavailable through the National Film Board at

Treaty Resources

Children of the Broken Treaty: Canada’s Lost Promise and One Girl’s Dream

Angus, Charlie. University of Regina Press, Saskatchewan, 2015.

Written by Charlie Angus, an elected Member of Parliament for Timmins-James Bay, this book looks at the youth-driven human rights movement inspired by Shannen Koostachin. Angus investigates the history of neglect in Treaty 9 territory, specifically in the area of education, in a detailed and brutally honest approach. This book is best suited for educators and senior students.

Illustrated History of the Chippewa of Nawash

Keeshig-Tobias, Polly. Chippewa of Nawash-Kendasswin Literacy, Ontario, 1996.

This graphic novel tells the history of the Chippewa of Nawash as the reader journeys through a 150-year voyage that leads to present-day issues facing Indigenous people in Canada. With direct quotes from speeches, letters, and documents, this graphic novel includes Ojibway words and phrases throughout and includes a bibliography, maps, and a glossary. Suitable for students in Grades 6-12, there is also a Teacher’s Guide for this resource.

We are All Treaty People

Switzer, Maurice. Union of Ontario Indians, Ontario, 2011

This 34-page book illustrates the history of treaties for all people in Ontario and was created by the Union of Ontario Indians to promote an understanding of treaties from the perspective of the Anishinabek Nations. The book opens with an overview of Anishinabek culture, history and worldview, progresses through contact and includes references to the Royal Proclamation, the Treaty of Niagara, and the Seven Year’s War. With explanations about wampum and examinations of the Covenant Chain and the Twenty-Four Nations belt, this comprehensive book includes maps, reproductions of treaties and illustrations that are engaging and descriptive. It is an excellent resource for educators and is suitable for elementary students. Also available in French.

We Are All Treaty People-Teacher’s Kit

Available through the Union of Ontario Indians

1-877-702-5200 $300

This teacher’s kit includes a guide with lesson plans specific to the Ontario curriculum expectations for Grades 1-8. Lessons are cross-curricular in nature and connect to the Social Studies, English and Arts curriculum. This guide includes blackline masters that can be reproduced for the classroom.

Switzer, Maurice. Nation to Nation: A Resource on Treaties in Ontario.

Union of Ontario Indians, Ontario, 2013

This 68-page book can be used to inform students about First Nations treaties in Ontario. With definitions and historical background, this resource offers a timeline as well as specific references to the Treaty of Niagara, Robinson Treaties, and Williams Treaties amongst others. As well, the significance of the War of 1812 is investigated and news articles and essays about modern treaty issues all offer useful references for educators and students. Suitable for all educators and secondary level students. Also available in French.

Obomsawin, Alanis. "270 Years of Resistance" (1990)

This documentary directed by Alanis Obomsawin was filmed during the armed confrontation between the Mohawks of Kanehsatake, the Quebec police and the Canadian army in 1990. This 119-minute film contains scenes of violence and is best suited for students in Grades 10-12.

Obomsawin, Alanis. "Trick or Treaty" (2014)

This 2014 documentary was directed by Alanis Obomsawin and profiles Indigenous leaders as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government. With specific reference to protection of land and natural resources, as well as hunting and fishing rights, this important film allows those previously shuttered the opportunity to have their voices heard. This 84-minute film is suitable for students in Grades 7-12.

The Toronto Purchase from the Perspective of the Mississaugas of the New Credit

This 13-minute video examines the Toronto Purchase from the perspective of the Mississaugas of the New Credit. With a brief history of the nation, this video documents the origins of the Toronto Purchase and identifies key players in the creation of this treaty. This video is suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

"This Canada Day, Let's Reconcile the Truth about Treaties"

This recent article by J. Edward Chamberlin, a senior research associate with the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and professor emeritus at the University of Toronto, was published in the Globe and Mail. It is a concise investigation into the history of treaty-making in Canada and calls for reconciling the past in attempt to develop a trusting relationship between Canada and the First Nations people. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

"Treaties from 1760-1923: Two Sides to the Story"

This article written by Isabelle Montpetit was published in the CBCNews on May 26, 2011. It is a brief explanation of the two opposing perspectives on oral agreements and how they translate into treaties. An examination of the symbolism of the medals presented to Chiefs upon signing treaties with the Crown, as well as how both Indigenous Peoples and the Crown benefitted from treaty relationships is included. A discussion about interpretation and intent is also included. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

"A Short Introduction to the Two-Row Wampum"

This article written by Tom Keefer in 2014 for Two Row Times gives a concise introduction to the importance of the Two Row Wampum, one of the oldest treaties between the Onkwehonweh people and European settlers. The explanation includes insight into the symbolism of the belt as well as the intent of the wampum. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

"Wampum Holds Power: Earliest Agreements"

This article written by Barb Nahwegahbow for Windspeaker references the use of wampum belts as treaty agreements, with insight into the use of the quahog shell and the symbolism of the shells. In particular, this article discusses the importance of the “Dish with One Spoon” wampum belt, the oldest treaty made between Indigenous People on Turtle Island prior to the arrival of the Europeans. Treaties are examined as “living documents” and covenants. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

"What's the Difference between Historic and Modern Treaties?"

This article by Bob Joseph offers a description of the difference between historic and modern treaties, as well as offers some additional background information on the issue. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 7-12.

Government of Ontario: Treaty Learning Resources

This Government of Ontario website offers treaty learning resources with videos, maps, timelines, interactive infographics, additional webpages, and books as well as teacher-specific resources. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

Government of Canada: Historical Information on Treaties

This Government of Canada website offers historical information about treaties between the Crown and Aboriginal people, pre-and post-Confederation. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

First Peoples of Canada: Treaties

This site, created by Goldi Productions, offers concise comparisons on the differences between how governments and First Nations view treaties. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

Ontario Map of Treaties

This pdf file outlines a map of treaties in Ontario, with detailed settlement areas, reserves and borders clearly defined. It can be printed on a colour printer or poster-sized copies can be ordered through Service Ontario Publications at 1-800-668-9938. Suitable for educators and students in Grades 4-12.

Historica Canada: Treaties

This 12-page document was developed for teachers and offers educators a solid background on the history of treaties between Canada. Included are a variety of activities to incorporate into classrooms, as well as teacher tips and excerpts to share with students. Suitable for educators and adaptable for students in Grades 4-12.

The Ipperwash Inquiry (2007)

With references from the Report of the Ipperwash Inquiry in 2007, a concise timeline, and recommendations for action, this resource offers maps, pictures, quotes, and solid background information. Reproducible for classes, this 15-page document is suitable for educators and secondary students.


Crawford Lake Conservation Area

2596 Britannia Road West
Burlington, ON
L7P 0G3

(905) 336-1158

Mohawk Institute & Woodland Cultural Centre

184 Mohawk Street
Brantford, ON
N3S 2X2

Phone: (519) 759-2650
Fax: (519) 759-8912

Tollfree: 1-866-412-2202

If you wish to book a tour, please contact

Context on the Reconciliation approach to the restoration currently underway at this site:

Kanata Village

A Cultural Experience

440 Mohawk St.

Brantford, ON

Grand River Territory

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation

Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation
2789 Mississauga Road R.R. #6
Hagersville, Ontario
N0A 1H0

Tel: (905) 768-1133

Six Nations of the Grand River

2498 Chiefswood Road, P.O.Box 569,

Ohsweken, ON N0A 1M0

(519) 758-5444

Toll Free: 1-866-393-3001

Native Canadian Centre

16 Spadina Road (Bloor & Spadina)
Toronto, ON, M5R 2S7

(416) 964-9087


McMichael Art Gallery

10365 Islington Avenue,

Kleinburg, Ontario, L0J 1C0

(905) 893-1121 or 1-888-213-1121
Fax: (905) 893-0692

Peel Art Gallery, Museums, Archives

9 Wellington St. E.,

Brampton, ON, L6W 1Y1

(905) 791-4055

Art Gallery of Mississauga

300 City Centre Drive.
Mississauga, ON L5B 3C1

Tel: (905) 896-5088

Places to Eat


1294 Gerard St E

Toronto, ON

(416) 220-2915

Nish Dish

690 Bloor Street West
Toronto, Ontario M6G1L2

(416) 855-4085


581 Mount Pleasant Rd

Toronto, Ontario

(416) 519-2638

Medicine Gardens & Land-Based Teachings

Heart Lake Conservation Area – Medicine Garden

10818 Heart Lake Rd

Brampton, ON L6Z 0B3

Toronto Zoo – Medicine Garden

361A Old Finch Avenue
Toronto, Ontario
M1B 5K7
Phone: (416) 392-5929

Riverwood Conservancy

Indigenous Land-Based Workshops

4300 Riverwood Park Lane

Mississauga ON

(905) 270-5878

Compiled by:

Mary Ellen Gucciardi: @megucciardi

Paula Nevins: @paula_nevins

Jennifer Pouw: @J_NPouw