A Prevenir Desastres Naturales
Experiencias Vividas por Bibliotecas y Medidas de Prevención
Invitación a Presentaciones, a la Interacción Colectiva, y a una Acción Proactiva Concertada
De Camino a la Celebración del 50 Aniversario, 1969-2019,
la Escuela Graduada de Ciencias y Tecnologías de la Información,
en la Universidad de Puerto Rico,
cordialmente le invita a asistir al evento titulado
LA PREVENCIÓN Y MITIGACIÓN ANTE DESASTRES NATURALES
EN UNIDADES DE INFORMACIÓN:
HACIA UNA ACCIÓN PROACTIVA CONCERTADA
Prepare su Unidad de Información para una emergencia.
Fecha y Hora : Viernes, 28 de septiembre de 2018, 2:00 – 6:00 p.m.
Lugar: Vestíbulo principal, Biblioteca José M. Lázaro,
Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras
El evento es libre de costo. Se concederán certificados de Educación Continua
por la exposición a las presentaciones y al intercambio de experiencias.
Introducción al Tema y Maestro de Ceremonias:
Samuel González-Rivera, cMIS,
Estudiante de Maestría EGCTi-UPR;
y Presidente, Amigos del 50 Aniversario EGCTI-UPR
Experiencias en Unidades de Información ante Desastres Naturales:
Moderación del Panel:
Loyda E. Nieves-Ayala, MS, MIS
Biblioteca Escuela Graduada de Planificación, UPR, Recinto de Río Piedras
Osvaldo Rivera-Soto, MIS
Biblioteca y Archivo de Medios Audiovisuales,
Radio Universidad, UPR, Recinto de Río Piedras email@example.com
Samuel Serrano-Medina, MIS, JD
Biblioteca de Derecho, UPR, Recinto de Río Piedras
Medidas de Prevención y Mitigación ante Desastres Naturales:
Recapitulación y Acción Proactiva Concertada
Conversatorio con los Presentes
con la participación del estudiante de Maestría EGCTI-UPR,
Carlos González-Rovira, cMIS,
y la Ponente y Moderadora del Conversatorio con los presentes,
Loyda E. Nieves-Ayala, MS, MIS,
Biblioteca de la Escuela Graduada de Planificación, Universidad de Puerto Rico
La Bohemiada Egctiana: Acto de Confraternización
Liderado por los
AMIGOS del 50 Aniversario EGCTI-UPR
con los estudiantes
Samuel González-Rivera, Carlos González-Rovira
y Wanda García-Franceschi
Disaster (Desastre): several definitions are frequently given to disaster. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a disaster as “a sudden ecological phenomenon of sufficient magnitude to require external assistance”. It is also defined as any event, typically occurring suddenly, that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, and which exceeds the capacity of the affected community on a scale sufficient to require outside assistance (Landsman, 2001). It is an emergency of such severity and magnitude that the resultant combination of deaths, injuries, illness, and property damage cannot be effectively managed with routine procedures or resources. Disaster is further defined as an event in which a society or a community undergoes acute deprivation of food and other basic necessities due to natural and man made calamities to such an extent that the normal function of the society or the community is disrupted and that it cannot subsist without outside intervention.
Emergency (Emergencia): is a state in which normal procedures are suspended and extra-ordinary measures are taken in order to avert a disaster. An emergency can be defined in the context of the social, political and epidemiological circumstances in which it occurs. Hazard: is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human made environment that adversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. It is essential to make a distinction between hazards and disasters, and to recognize that the effect of the former upon the latter is essentially a measure of the society’s vulnerability.
Mitigation (Mitigación): is permanent reduction of the risk of a disaster. Primary mitigation refers to reducing the resistance of the hazard and reducing vulnerability. Secondary mitigation refers to reducing the effects of the hazard (preparedness). Mitigation includes recognizing that disasters will occur; attempts are made to reduce the harmful effects of a disaster, and to limit their impact on human suffering and economic assets.
Prevention (Prevención): is defined as those activities taken to prevent a natural phenomenon or potential hazard from having harmful effects on either people or economic assets. Delayed actions drain the economy and the resources for emergency response within a region. For developing nations, prevention is perhaps the most critical components in managing disasters, however, it is clearly one of the most difficult to promote. Prevention planning is based on two issues: hazard identification (identifying the actual threats facing a community) and vulnerability assessment (evaluating the risk and capacity of a community to handle the consequences of the disaster). Once these issues put in order of priority, emergency managers can determine the appropriate prevention strategies. Disaster prevention refers to measures taken to eliminate the root-causes that make people vulnerable to disaster.
Preparedness (Preparación): Are the measures that ensure the organized mobilization of personnel, funds, equipments, and supplies within a safe environment for effective relief.
Disaster preparedness (Preparación en Desastres): is building up of capacities before a disaster situation prevails in order to reduce impacts. Its measures include inter alia, availability of food reserve, emergency reserve fund, seed reserve, health facilities, warning systems, logistical infrastructure, relief manual, and shelves of projects.
Reconstruction (Reconstrucción): the full resumption of socio-economic activities
plus preventive measures.
Rehabilitation (Rehabilitación): is the restoration of basic social functions.
Resilience (Resiliencia): is adaptability, capacity to recover.
Response (Respuesta): is the set of activities implemented after the impact of a disaster in order to assess the needs, reduce the suffering, limit the spread and the consequences of the disaster, open the way to rehabilitation.
Risk (Riesgo): is the expected losses (lives lost, persons injured, damages to property and disruption of economic activity) due to a particular hazard. Risk is the product of hazard and vulnerability. Risk is the probability that a person will experience an event in a specified period of time. Risk as a function of hazard and vulnerability, a relationship that is frequently illustrated with the following formula, although the association is not strictly arthematic: Risk = hazard x vulnerability. Risk is the probability of being affected by the unwanted consequences of a hazard. It combines the level of hazard and degree of vulnerability.
Risk assessment (Avalúo de riesgo): is a term used widely for a systematic approach to characterizing the risks posed to individuals and populations by potentially adverse exposures.
Susceptibility (Suceptibilidad): is exposure to danger.
Vulnerability (Vulnerabilidad) is the degree of loss resulting from a potentially damaging phenomenon. It is the susceptibility of a population to specific type of event. Vulnerability is also associated with the degree of possible or potential loss from a risk that results from a hazard at a given intensity. The factors that influence intensity include demographics, the age, and resilience of the environment, technology, social differentiation and diversity as well as regional and global economics and politics.
It is essential to make distinction between hazard and disaster. The presence of hazard by its self can neither cause risk nor disasters. There are different predisposing factors that make vulnerable the survivors. The following are some of such underlying causes:
- Poverty: Virtually all disaster studies show that the wealthiest of the population survive the disaster, remains unaffected or are able to recover quickly.
- Population growth: Increasing number of people will compete for limited amount of resources which can lead to conflict and conflict may result in crisis-induced migration.
- Rapid urbanization: Competition for scarce resources is an inevitable consequence of rapid urbanization, leading to human-made disasters.
- Transitions in cultural practices: Societies are constantly changing and in continuous state of transition. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven, leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology.
- Conflicts as well as transitional cultural practices can also lead to civil conflict (e.g. communal violence triggered by religious differences).
- Environmental degradation: Deforestation leads to rapid rain run off, which contributes to flooding.
- Lack of awareness and information: Disasters can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply do not know how to get out of harm’s way or to take protective measures.
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