Discover the World
The Age of Exploration
By Jillian Fernandes, Kathryn Gallison, Leah Desilets
Line of Demarcation
Breaking news: Pope installs "Line of Demarcation"
Our pope has recently set a line of demarcation which, once in effect, will separate the non-European world into two zones. Spain will have rights to trading and exploration in any land west of the line. To the right of the line, Portugal will have these same rights. This line will pass through the Atlantic Ocean, separating the Old World and the recently discovered New World. A treaty, called The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by the Portuguese and the Spanish will detail the specific terms of the Line of Demarcation. The institution of this line means that the Spanish will have the rights to explore the New World and the Portuguese will not. However, the Portuguese have trading rights to all of the European countries rich in trading goods, such as sugar, slaves, spices, and gold. Again, the specifics of this new installment will be laid out in The Treaty of Tordesillas. For developing news on this story, tune in at 10:30 p.m. for the Nightly News.
What's Happening Now
Slave trade is now seen as the most important item in trading. Slavery, being a very old practice, has recently begun again. When the Portuguese traders went into Africa to acquire new trading ports, they discovered a new market that is bubbling in Europe. It is easier to acquire slaves because the native Africans are enslaving their own people as well. Some African kingdoms are even growing very wealthy from doing so. Slaves can be used for plantations and other industries. Negatively, millions of African natives are horribly transported throughout the Middle Passage. The conditions on the boats are absolutely terrible and inhumane. Many humans died on this boat, either from little nourishment or diseases. Each year, traders ship tens of thousands of enslaved Africans through the Middle Passage. Before slaves are sold, they are often converted to Christianity. As of right now, the slave trade is having major effects on the African states. More to come with our next issues!
Thanks to the great mapmakers of our era, we are now able to see much of the world in a single picture. Explorers and cartographers have worked together to construct a map depicting the entire world, including all known landmasses, lakes, rivers, and oceans. These new and improved maps will be invaluable to navigators and merchants sailing the waters. Not to mention they will be extremely useful to the military forces on both land and in the sea, and all those traveling on foot across regions. Skilled cartographers have used compass points to draw lines to ports. These additions will help merchants find their way to their destinations more easily. These maps will also include the boundries and names of each kingdom or country and the names of all discovered waterways. In addition, it will depict mountain ranges for travelers. All these aspects make the new maps of this era a necessity for all.
The Philippines are a chain of several thousand islands located in Southeast Asia. A great place to go with tropical climates, the Philippines are full of beaches and warm weather. The Spanish captured these islands, naming them after the Spanish King Philip II, so if you are a Spaniard you are especially welcome! Come to the Philippines, there is much silver from Mexico and Peru. Get the silver while it lasts! From there, you can trade it with other close Asian countries or keep it for your own use! Enjoy the friendliness of the Catholic population there, thanks to missionaries straight from Spain! Visit the homes of the principalía, the Filipino upper class, and experience the lifestyles of wealth, high status, and other special privileges. Experience an array of culture, religion, and natural beauty when you go! Come to the Philippines, you won't experience any other colony like it!
Ruperto- a Local from the Philippines Affected by Colonization
Interviewer: Hi Ruperto, so nice to have you here!
Ruperto: I'm glad to be here, and thank you.
Interviewer: So you are a native of the Philippines, correct? How long have you lived here?
Ruperto: Yes, I was here since birth. I am 40 now.
Interviewer: Wow, so you have experienced firsthand the colonization of your country has been like. Can you describe it for us?
Ruperto: Well, the Spanish first camek in 1521. I was not born yet, but a man named Ferdinand Magellan came and claimed our islands as his own. When the Spanish came, we were not united under a single ruler, so they did not have much problem conquering us. However, the Spanish did not begin to truly invade the Philippines until 1564, when I was about 10. An expedition from New Spain was led by Miguel Lopez Legaspi, who became the first Governor/General of my country. In 1565, he began setting up permanent Spanish settlements and central government (many of the islands had no central government and were unfamiliar with its concepts). He named a place called Manila our capital. Manila became the place where the most Spanish military, religious, and commercial activity took place among the islands.
Interviewer: You mentioned religious activity. This was taking place during the time of the Catholic Reformation, so were you converted to Christianity? What was that like?
Ruperto: Missionaries just kept coming from Spain, trying to convert us all to Christianity. Being a believer in my previous religion, I did all I could to resist the missionaries' teachings. As I saw all my friends and family converting, I realized I had not choice but to convert also. I don't think anyone was very happy about the new Christian religion infiltrating our previous culture, but we didn't have any means to go resist the Spanish ways. For a long time, I secretly practiced my previous religion, but the danger of getting caught became too high and I, along with many others, truly immersed ourselves in the Christian ways to please the missionaries.
Interviewer: I heard of many revolts the Filipinos had an opposition to the Spanish rule. Would you care to tell us more about that?
Ruperto: The Spanish governor was made viceroy in 1589. I was 35. With this, a labor system called the encomienda system was established. Life under this system was hard, and we all hated it. Many tried to revolt, including me, but we did not have enough resources or cohesion to have an uprising that did any good. Usually it just brought on more hardships that the families who participated in the revolt had to live with.
Interviewer: Alright, it looks like we are just out of time. Thank you for coming!
Ruperto: Not a problem, thank you for having me!
The Obituaries of Great Men
Christopher Columbus, died on May 20th 1506 at the age of 54, Valladolid, Spain. Born in Genoa, Italy in 1451, Christopher Columbus was a very popular explorer. Christopher thought that if he traveled through the Atlantic Ocean he would reach the East Indies. He talked to the kings of Portugal, France, and England to finance his trip to sail across the ocean. He went unsuccessful for many years, but finally the King and Queen of Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, agreed to fund his trip. On August 3, 1942, Christopher Columbus set sail on his adventure with the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. Columbus and his crew discovered the Bahama Islands, Cuba, Hispaniola, and what he thought were the Spice Islands. Returning home to Spain, Christopher Columbus was a new man of legacy; he was an amazing hero. Some people even took his journey as discovering a new world, rather than a quicker way to get to the Indies. Today, we celebrate Christopher Columbus Day to honor Christopher for his amazing journey and outstanding discovery.
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, died on December 23, 1524, at the age of 64 in Kochi, India. Vasco da Gama was an incredible Portuguese explorer. He was the first European to sail with his crew to find an easier way to trade. Given four ships by the king of Portugal, Vasco da Gama began his journey on July 8th, 1497. With his fleet, the Sao Gabriel, Sao Rafael, the Berrio, a forth unnamed ship, and 170 men, de Gama set sail from Lisbon to India. He rounded the tip of the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, and continued north to Mombasa, Malindi, and finally Calicut. In Calicut, Vasco da Gama traded many goods for Asian products and spices. He returned back to Portugal and was a victor to his people. After his second trip to India, where he horribly murdered muslims to assert dominance, de Gama returned to Portugal and died from an illness.
Ferdinand Magellan, died on April 27th, 1521, at the age of around 40-41, at Sabrosa, Portugal. Magellan was an extremely famous explorer. Magellan was granted the support of King Charles I, and on September 20, 1519, Magellan and his crew of 237 set sail to find a shortcut to the Spice Islands. The time spent on the water was treacherous and laboring. The crew endured horrible weather and the constant paranoia of Portuguese ships. Magellan and his crew sailed through the horrible pass at the tip of South America which is now known as the Strait of Magellan. After entering the Pacific Ocean, the crew’s conditions got much worse. They had to deal with hunger and diseases. Finally, on March 6, the crew reached land: the island of Guam. There they replenished their supplies, gaining fresh water. Lastly, the crew reached the Philippine Islands, where Vasco da Gama, during a heated conversation with the chief, was brutally murdered. With the loss of their leader, the crew sailed to Spain. They completed the first circumnavigation of the world, with their fearless leader looking down from above.
(Answers to crossword puzzle)
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