Paper 2

In what ways did the advances in technology affect the nature and outcome of warfare in the first half of the 20th century

Wars that were included in this time period consist of

1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
1910-1920 Mexican Revolution
1912-1913 First and Second Balkan Wars
1914-1918 World War I
1915-1918 Armenian Genocide
1917 Russian Revolution
1918-1921 Russian Civil War
1919-1921 Irish War of Independence
1927-1937 Chinese Civil War
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War
1939-1945 World War II


But in particular I will be observing Just World War I and World War II since they incorporate a large portion of the world and also the most noticeable weapon changes.

Big weapon Advancements

World war I

1)Machines Guns became mass produced

  • One individual with a machine gun turret could destroy fleets of enemies charging across no mans land.
2)Toxic Gases

  • Gases such as mustard gas could be tossed into the enemies trenches and kill countless soldiers with in the time frame of a few weeks simply them inhaling the toxic gas.
3)Planes

  • Not commonly found in the first world war planes could be used to spy on the enemies and could also carry bombs machine guns and gas
4) Flamethrowers

  • A few people could torch enemies and burn down all of their buildings and soldiers within a matter of minutes leaving no where to run.

World War II

1) Tanks

  • Although they were around during the first world war, their true power wasn't shown until the second world war. The tanks could be used to penetrate into the enemies defensive lines thus making it easier to advance forward.
2) Aircrafts

  • Aircrafts were more widely used for offensive attacks.
3)Nuclear Weapons

  • The aotmic bomb was created and it was capable of destroying an entire city with just one bomb.

How did it impact the nature and outcome of war?

The world wars were mainly fought in trenches compared to previous wars which were fought in the open. This is because technology such as machine guns and flamethrowers were very effective at killing large armies but they couldn't hit the targets that they could not see. In order to win a war you need to gain higher ground and maintain it so that you are more capable of defending against an attack. Also it became evident towards the end of world war II that even though you could win a war with just a countless number of troops, evident in the battle of Barbarossa, you would need to develop the best technology capable of destroying many individuals. Some

For what reasons and with what success did the U.S adopt a policy of containment between 1947 and 1962

Containment

A foreign policy that had a main goal of stopping the spread of communism by the Soviet Union


How was it enforced?

Truman doctrine

  • Provided monetary incentives to countries that would fend off communism and stay away from the communist system.
  • Congress delegated finances to countries such as Greece and turkey. They also gave money through the Marshall plan to rebuild Europe. (though some historians seen the motivation for the Marshall plan was to place Europe in a state where they were in debt to The U.S
North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Created April 4th 1949

  • Was an attempt to gather capitalist countries to join forces against the communist forces (warsaw pact)

Successes of Containment

The containment policy was originally seen as successful since in Europe the division of Berlin made the soviets push towards communism worthless because they eventually became capitalist. It is later seen as a failure since in Vietnam after a struggle of war the north section of the country became communist. Though it was not a total failure it is still a failure nevertheless. But the largest failure of containment was in Cuba since the Cuban missile crisis almost cost the entire world of their lives. It was finally at this point where Americans realized that communism was not trying to take over the world and that it did not matter which system a government was using.