Mid-Year Review

Chemistry,Earth History,Infectious Diseases

Chemistry-8.P.1- Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in open and closed container.

Physical Properties- A characteristic that you can observe without changing the identity of the substance. Describes how something looks,smells,feels,sounds or taste or it can also be defined as odor,density,mass,state,volume and color.You use your senses to observe physical properties.


Chemical Properties- A characteristic that you can only observe by changing the identity of the substance.Describes how something reacts with something else also flammability reactivate oxidation and toxicity are all examples of chemical properties.


Physical Change- Any change that does not involve a change in the substance's chemical identity. Ex. Water, Ice and wood. Typically, physical changes can be reversed.It does not form a new substance.


Chemical Change- Any change in matter that results in the information of new chemical substance. Ex.Cake egg, and burning wood. Chemical change typically cannot be reversed. A new substance is formed as a result of a chemical reaction.One or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties.

Elements- made of one type of atom, cannot be separated into a simpler substance by physical or chemical means.


Compound- are made of two or more atoms of different element that are bonded together. Made of elements in a specific ratio that is always the same and can only be separated by chemical means not physical.


Mixture- Combination of 2 or more pure substances that are held together by physical forces not chemical. Each item retains its properties in the mixture. They can be separated physically no chemical change takes place.

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Periodic Table- Describes the parts of an atom and how we use these parts to identify elements on the elements on the periodic table


The periodic table is organized vertically and horizontally the vertical row are called groups there are eight-teen the horizontal rows are called periods there are eight.The groups are organized from one to eight-teen the first group have one electron on the outer shell. Group two have two electrons on the outer layer.Group three has three electrons on the outer layer and so on.


There are three kinds of metals in the periodic table. Metal, Metalliods, and Non-Metals.

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Law of Conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be transferred from state to state.
Vocabulary-

Periods-the periodic table has 7 horizontal rows known as periods

Groups-Columns of elements on the periodic table that share common properties

Atomic Mass-the mass of a atom of a chemical element that is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom

Physical Properties-things that can be observed or measured without changing the matters identity

Chemical Properties-Describes matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties

Atomic Number-it is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus

Earth History

Law of superposition States that new rock layers are always above the older ones


Index Fossil- A fossil that is used dating


Ice Cores- is a core of ice that is used to tell how the weather was like at a certain time in the past


Geologic Time Scale- This is a scale with 5 eras Precambrian which is the first and oldest era, Paleozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, and then the Cenozoic Era which we are in today


Relative Dating- Any method of determining whether an event or object is older or younger than events and objects


Absolute Dating-the science of determining the exact age of an object


Half Life- the length of time needed for half of the atoms of a sample of radio isotope to decay


Radio Active Decay- the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy


Isotope- different version of the same element

Infectious Disease

Microorganism-unicellular, very diverse can also cause disease like a virus , fungi, bacteria, Parasites


Epidemic- a widespread of an infectious disease with in a small population or community


Pandemic-an outbreak of an infectious disease that affects large populations

How to prevent or control

  • Raise awareness
  • Have people with education in medication
  • Vaccines/ antibiotics
  • Maintain good hygiene
  • Sanitation
  • Quarantines
  • Travel regulations


Bio Technology- this opens up many jobs that could soon help the world which would make people want to work with this there are many things to Discover

thing like genetic engineering, Gmo, Cloning,Bio remediation