Energy is generated here, with a super high temperature, at about 15 million degrees kelvin, it's very packed, and dense. The gravity/pressure here is the strongest.
The atoms in this area are cooler than the atoms in the core. The energy is passed between each atom. It takes over 170 thousand years for the energy released in the core of the Sun to get out of the radiation zone! The temperature is 5 million kelvin.
Also known as the convection zone, in this area, the temp is 2 million kelvin, and it only takes a week for the energy to rise to the next layer. Most consider it the outer shell.
This area is so thick with gas, even though the star has no surface, we cannot see past this layer with a telescope. It takes light from the sun 8 minutes to reach Earth.
The red outline around it, forming a sphere of red light.
This area is the extra light shot out by the sun. You can only see this during eclipses.
These areas appear darker than the rest of the sun, because the are cooler in comparison. These areas last anywhere from an hour, to several months.
Are large gaseous loops that appear on the surface of the sun, and extend outwards.
When magnetic energy is released after building up inside of the sun in the form of a flare, it's a solar flare. The released energy is 10 million times greater than that of a volcano.
These are an effect of the particles released from the sun. They're caused by bursts of solar light/flares, which cause oxygen/nitrogen to release photons of light.