China & Japan
By: Janvi Patel
Treaty of Najing
The Taiping Rebellion
Social Reform Movements
Self Strengthening Movement
- Empowered local leaders with imperial grants of authority that allowed them to basically create and govern their own region
- Sought to blend Chinese culture and European technology
- Built modern shipyards, railroads, weapon industries, steel foundries, and founded academies focused on the development of science
- Did not bring enough industrialization to strengthen China
- Only brought industrialism to the surface
The Self Strengthening Movement was also faced with many obstacles with the biggest one being Cixi, the empress dowager. She diverted funds meant for industrial projects to her own garden. Also, the movement's core ideals went against those of China. To bring industrialization to China would undermine the agrarian society already in place and the indoctrination of European thought would disassemble the carefully built Confucian society.
The Hundred Days Reforms
- Leading figures were scholars Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao
- Published manipulated Confucian thought to support radical changes in the imperial system
- Wanted to remake China into a leading industrial society, despite the undermining of Chinese ideals required to do so
- Emperor Guangxu was impressed and gave in to Youwei and Qichao's ideas
- Launched a program that would completely change China
The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
- Also called the Boxers
- Made up of militia units
- Backed by Cixi
- Believed that foreign weapons could not wound them
- Organized to rid China of "foreign devils"
As a result of the brutal attacks on foreign influence in northern China, a heavy force of foreign units consisting of the British, French, Russian, U.S., German, and Japanese destroyed the Boxer movement in retaliation. In payment, the Chinese government had to provide punitive indemnity to foreigners and allow the stationing of troops in Beijing and along routes that led to the sea.
The death of the previous emperor, the death of Cixi, and the abdication of the throne as performed by the last emperor marked the end of the Qing Dynasty.
This political revolution "restored" the emperor to power, but he did not rule directly. He was expected to accept the advice of the group that had overthrown the shôgun, and it was from this group that a small number of ambitious, able, and patriotic young men from the lower ranks of the samurai emerged to take control and establish the new political system. At first, their only strength was that the emperor accepted their advice and several powerful feudal domains provided military support. They moved quickly, however, to build their own military and economic control. By July 1869 the feudal lords had been requested to give up their domains, and in 1871 these domains were abolished and transformed into prefectures of a unified central state.