IPS Exam Study Guide

Scientific Method Notes

  1. Identify problem
  2. Gather info
  3. Form hypothesis/ theory
  4. Perform experiment
  5. Analyze data
  6. Conclusion

Lab: Reaction in a bag

Reactions

  • Solid A, Solid B, Red liquid gets produced, cold and hot, turns yellow
  • Solid A and a Liquid B gets hot
  • Solid B and a liquid gets cold


Solid A and Solid B with a Liquid will produce a gas

to Have the Liquid turn yellow you need Solid A, Solid B, and Red liquid

CHAPTER 1

Vocabulary

  1. observation- information obtained by the senses- often by direct measurement
  2. Inference- a conclusion based upon known observations
  3. Hypothesis- a proposed solution to a scientific problem
  4. Control factors- the variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and the experimental group
  5. Control group- the group that is the standard for comparison in any experiment
  6. Experimental group- the group receiving the variable being tested
  7. Indicator- a substance used to show the presence of another substance
  8. Volume- the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases
  9. Volume Displacement Technique- quick and easy way to determine the volume of a solid or gas
  10. Mass- the amount of matter in a substance (true of solids, liquids, and gases)
  11. Meniscus- the curved portion of a liquid when in a container. Must read the bottom of the meniscus at eye level for proper measurement.

Lab: Baking Soda

Observations

  • water started to lower
  • test tube burnt
  • condensation caused for there to be droplets in the test tube

Errors

  1. Hole in rubber tubing
  2. topper is not on tight
  3. tubing is not at top fo bottle
  4. cap burner before removing tubing

Post Lab

  • gas comes from the baking soda because if you heat a test tube without baking soda, the gas does not form
  • when warm gas touches coller surfaces it turns back to a liquid
  • you know that the un-heated test tube is baking soda and tea
  • if the color is different, then the heated baking soda must have changed
  1. Control Group: un-heated baking soda and tea
  2. Experimental group: heated baking soda and tea
  3. Indicator: tea
  4. Control factor: amount of baking soda, amount of tea, same type of tea, amount of stirring time


1.2 Volume notes

Unit of Measurement: cm3 (cubic centimeters)

Volume: L*W*H (axbxc)

Standard unit of length- Meter (M)

Centimeter (1cm)=.01M

100

100cm=1M

Volume of liquids

  • use a graduated cylinder to measure volume
  • ***Always check the intervals or scale
  • units=Milliliters (ML) or cm3
  • 1ML=1cm3\

Single Pan Notes

  1. check that pan is clean and dry
  2. always "zero" balance before EACH massing
  • push all riders to zero
  • adjustment knob if needed
  • NEVER switch pans
  • pick up balance by red bar only
  • return riders to zero when done


Lab: Volume of Sand

Calculations

  • Sand and water- water= sand alone
  • dry sand- sand alone= air space
  • is/of


Errors

  • sand sticks to the side of wet cylinder= volume of snad and water will be lower
  • if you record sand level NOT water level
  • pour water into sand= volume of sand and water will go up
  • sand gets stuck in funnel if its wet
  • pour sand too fast= overflows funnel


Extra question

  1. Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand?

  • did not matter how much sand you began with, the % of air space within the sand was all around 40%



Lab: Sensitivity of Balance

  • Change is in mass/ number of yes's= sensitivity of the balance
  • Mf- Mi= Change in mass

Post Lab

Pennies

  • Before 1982: 95% copper 5% zinc
  • After 1982: 2.5% copper 97.5% zinc
  • in 1943 were zinc plated steel

Sensitivity of balance

  • The margin of error (+-) your balance has when massing an object

CHAPTER 2

Lab: 2.1

Mf-Mi= change in mass

  • Mi= Initial Mass
  • Mf= Final mass

Post Lab

  • Consider the sensitivity of balance- every change in mass could be +- 0.02 of the amount given
  • 14 out of 18 show a decrease in Mass

Errors

  1. cleaning pan between Mi and Mf
  2. salt spills from cap to bottle
  3. remove cap before Mf
  4. not shaking long enough
  5. cap is not tight- water spills out
  6. not drying cap- starts dissolving
  7. bottle is wet outside for Mi

Most lead to a decrease in Mass



Lab: Mass of Ice and Water

  • Condensation- comes from warm water vapor touching the cooler surface of bottle. It changes from gas to liquid
  • Water vapor- much warmer than surface of the bottle

Errors

  1. not wiping off condensation on outside
  2. ice is not melted finally
  3. shaking bottle
  4. not drying before massing
  5. removing mass before mass final

Lab: Copper and Sulfur

Errors

  1. shake test tube- sulfur is stuck to sides
  2. hole in the sheet
  3. sheet is not tight enough

Lab: Mass of a Gas

Errors

  • That effect the change in mass
  1. cap not on tightly
  2. not drying outside bottle before Mi
  3. inside cap not dry

  • That effect the Mi
  1. removing cap
  2. water splashes out when loosening cap

gas is hard to work with because you cannot see it and its hard to contain


Law of Conservation of Mass Notes

  • Mass of gas lab- 19 out of 30
  • copper sulfur- 6 out of 10
  • ice lab- 8 out of 20
  • salt lab- 3 out of 18

In a closed system Mass will remain constant, regardless of the action of the processs inside the closed system.


Mass is always conserved, however, in a nuclear reaction sam mass is lost. The energy released in a nuclear reaction will be absorbed into surrounding material, adding Mass to it. So, the Mass is not really lost


CHAPTER 3

Vocabulary

  1. Characteristic Properties- properties that show differences between substances Ex: density, boiling point, solubility, melting point
  2. Density- mass per unit of any substance. Unit of measure is g/cm3
  3. Property of object- describes the object itself
  4. identify what the object is made of.

3.2

Errors

  1. re-mass same cylinder
  2. cylinder is wet when massed
  3. not enough water in graduated cylinder
  4. water splashes out of graduated cylinder


Mass and volume notes

  1. objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass
  2. the mass of an object will double if its volume doubles
  3. objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will NOT have the same mass.

3.3: Density

  • M/V= D
  • Units: g/cm3 (grams per cm3)
  • Al: 2.7/1= 2.1g/cm3

Function graphs


3.5: Density of solids

Rock

  • all have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together
  • Different substances= different densities

Errors

  1. measure volume of rock before massing- mass goes up, density goes up
  2. mix up the cubes
  3. measure same side of cube/ slab twice
  4. measure from end of ruler- not zero: volume goes down- density goes down

3.6: Density of Liquids

Errors

  1. cylinder is contaminated
  2. cylinder is wet when massed
  3. dry out the cylinder after its massed
  4. same liquid sticks to inside wall: volume decreases, density increases


Liquids had something dissolved into it

  • water with magnesium sulfate- epson salt

Lab: 3.7

Errors

  1. hand not tight on bottle: water leaks out- volume goes up, density goes down
  2. spill water when finding volume in bottle
  3. touch tablet after Mi- mass goes up, density goes up
  4. hole in tubing/ too slow putting tubing in bottle/ stopper not tight- volume goes down, density goes up
  5. air bubble in bottle- volume goes up, density goes down