Types of Bacteria

by Sruthi Boppuri

Tek 4A Enrichment

Coccus

This type of bacteria is round and spherical-shaped. They are usually arranged in a chain or a cluster. However, they can appear as a single bacterium. When they appear in a chain, they are called streptococcus. When they appear in pairs, they are called diplococcus. When they are arranged in clusters, they are called staphylococcus.
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Bacillus

This type of bacteria is shaped like a cylinder and can be found single or arranged in chains. An example of this type of bacteria is E. coli that lives in the body's digestive tract. It can sometimes cause disease but not often. When they are found in a chain, they are called streptobacillus. When they are oval shaped, they are called a coccobacillus.
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Vibrio

This type of bacteria is spiral-shaped and looks like a comma. They are usually found in aquatic environments. An example of this type of bacteria is Vibrio cholerae, which moves by a single flagellum and causes the disease cholera.
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Spirillum

This type of bacteria also has a spiral shape. It is usually thick and rigid. An example of this type of bacteria is Campylobacter jejuni. This bacteria causes diarrhea.
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Spirochete

This type of bacteria is long and thin and resembles a cork-screw shape. It is very flexible. They move by rotating themselves and this allows them to live in mucus-lined tissue.
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Beneficial Bacteria

  • Lactobacilli: rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid
  • Bifidobacteria: rod-shaped bacteria that have probiotic benefits and prevent diarrhea and yeast infection
  • Escherichia coliare: rod-shaped bacteria that help break down undigested sugars and produce biotin and vitamin K
  • etc.

Harmful Bacteria

  • Mycobacteria: rod-shaped bacteria that can cause infections of the lungs, skin, etc.
  • Clostridium tetani: infect the gastrointestinal tract
  • Yersinia pestis: infects the skin and lungs
  • Helicobacter pylori: can cause gastric and peptic ulcers
  • Bacillus anthracis: bacteria found in animals that can cause abdominal problems when transmitted to humans

Bibliography

Cholerae Bacteria. Digital image. Lookfordiagnosis.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSDoSBOzat0WDtzKdZ-WIjc4OkNYUf8IPxhTx-lfyaoFWvSL85LdCWTw94>.


Digital image. Introduction to the Spirochetes. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/spirochetes.html>.

Coccus Bacteria. Digital image. Pixshark.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://pixshark.com/coccus-bacteria-under-microscope.htm>.

Digital image. Wp.auburn.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://wp.auburn.edu/aww/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/e-coli-streptococci.jpg>.


Mikesh, Leann, Ph.D. "Five Different Types of Bacteria." LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 14 Feb. 2014. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/117677-five-different-types-bacteria/>.

Spirillum. Digital image. Fineartamerica.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://fineartamerica.com/featured/spirillum-bacteria-artwork-sciepro.html>.

"Sizes, Shapes, and Arrangements of Bacteria." II. THE PROKARYOTIC CELL: BACTERIA. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. <http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/shape/shape.html>.

"Types of Bacteria | MD-Health.com." MD-Health.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. <http://www.md-health.com/Types-Of-Bacteria.html>.