Iron, Neon, Lead, Iridium, Rhenium

Chapter 4: Where Atoms Come From: “We Are All Star Stuff”

Synopsis of Chapter 4

All the particles that collide with each other have so much momentum that they jump over normal energy barriers and fuse onto iron and many iron nuclei end up coated in neutrons, some of which turn back into protons and create new elements (Ch.4 p.68). However, in the book it states that, all the elements that come after iron are made by a supernova explosion. Iridium is used in making crucibles and other equipment that is used at high temperatures. The theory of Iridium is that a meteor that hit the Earth had iridium on it and created a dust wave that sank to the Earth (Ch.4 p 71). Neon was mentioned in the book due to the Neon rain in Jupiter. Neon mixes with Hydrogen and Helium and liquefies and becomes denser as it goes to the core of Jupiter. The atoms become “excited’ the closer they get to the core and the pressure makes them light up causing them to light up (Ch.4 p.71). The book also talks about how the heaviest elements are highly radioactive and break down into Lead (Ch.4 p.73) Lead is a very toxic element and is poisonous for the human body.

Iron (Fe)

Atomic Number: 26

Atomic Mass: 55.85

Period: 4

Group: 8

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^6

Element Classification: Iron is a Transition Metal

Unique Characteristics: Gray, relatively soft metal and is a good heat conductor.

Why is this element important? The outer and inner layer of the Earth is made out of Iron and hold the Earth together. Iron is used to make steel an alloy of iron and carbon.

Where was it discovered? Iron is known to mankind since Ancient Times.

Who discovered it? No one specifically knows how discovered Iron.

What/Who is it named after? iron symbol comes from the Latin word Ferrum that means iron.

Neon (Ne)

Atomic Number: 10

Atomic Mass:20.18

Period:2

Group:18

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6

Element Classification: Noble Gases

Unique Characteristics: colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It changes from gas to liquid to solid.

Why is this element important? Without neon we wouldn't have advertisement signs.

Where was it discovered? Mainly discovered in Jupiter Neon and helium mixing together sinking down into the core of Jupiter and this excites the atoms of Neon making them light up and therefore it causes a Neon Rain.

Who discovered it? Sir William Ramsay

What/Who is it named after? Named after the Greek word "Neos" meaning "new."

Lead (Pb)

Atomic Number: 82

Atomic Mass: 207.2

Period: 6

Group: 14

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f^14 5s^2 5p^6 5d^10 6s^2 6p^2

Element Classification: Post-Transition Metal

Unique Characteristics: Dense, Durable, and Malleable.

Why is this element important? Lead is used in the glass of the screens of the Computer and TV screens shielding the eyes from radiation. It is also used as a coloring for ceramic glazes. Lead can also be used for cables, sheeting, solders, and lead crystal glassware.

Where was it discovered? Lead is a toxic heavy metal found in mineral deposits of Earth's crust.

Who discovered it? By the Roman times lead was used commonly due to the water systems and the lead pipes that were built.

What/Who is it named after? The symbol Pb comes from the Latin word plumbum that means liquid silver.

Iridium (Ir)

Atomic Number: 77

Atomic Mass: 192.22

Period: 6

Group: 9

Electron Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f^14 5s^2 5p^6 5d^7 6s^2

Element Classification: Transition Metals

Unique Characteristics: rare, hard, brittle, very dense platinum-like metal.

Why is this element important? Iridium is used in making crucibles and other equipment that is used at high temperatures. It is also used to make heavy-duty electrical contacts.

Iridium was used in making the international standard kilogram, which is an alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium. Radioactive isotopes of iridium are used in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer.

Where was it discovered? He found it in the residue left when crude platinum had been dissolved in aqua regalia (a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitrite acid).

Who discovered it? Iridium was discovered in 1803, by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

What/Who is it named after? The word Iridium comes from the Latin word "iris" meaning Rainbow because many of its salts are highly colored.

Rhenium (Re)

Atomic Number:75

Atomic Mass: 156.21

Period:6

Group:7

Element Configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^10 4s^2 4p^6 4d^10 4f^14 5s^2 5p^6 5d^5 6s^2

Element Classification: Transition Metals

Unique Characteristics: silvery-white metallic element.

Why is this element important? Rhenium is used in flash lamps for photography and filaments of mass spectro-graphs.

Where was it discovered? The German team of scientist detected Rhenium in platinum spectroscopic.

Who discovered it? German chemists Ida Tacke-Noddack, Walter Noddack and Otto Carl Berg

What/Who is it named after? It was from the Latin word for Rhine River, Rhenus.

Overall Summary

Iron would be found mostly in the Earth's inner and 5% outer core. Another element found in residue of the Earth’s crust is Iridium. Iron is important because it holds the world around us together. Iron is mainly found in a compound (Fe2O3) which is used to make large amounts of steel (Office of Science Edu, 2015). Iron is also found in stars from which astronomers assume that the rest of the periodic table is also represented and iron is the last element that fuses in a star’s natural life (Ch.4 p.67). There is an iridium layer that extended across the Earth and is explained by the meteor that killed off all the dinosaur. Neon is also important because it is used in many light signs. Hydrogen, Helium, and Neon becomes liquefied going closer to the core of Jupiter. Neon and helium mix together sinking down into the core of jupiter and this excites the atoms of Neon making them light up and therefore it causes a Neon Rain (Ch.4 p.71). Rhenium is important because it has contributed to the history of the flash lamps of photography. Lead has been used in the daily life of humans. Lead is used to write, water pipes, shields against x-rays, gamma rays radiation (Office of Science Edu, 2015).

Sources

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (2015,

January 11) It’s Elemental Iridium. Retrieved from:

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele077.html

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (2015,

January 11) It’s Elemental Iron. Retrieved from:

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele026.html

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (2015,

January 11) It’s Elemental Lead. Retrieved from:

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele082.html

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (2015,

January 11) It’s Elemental Neon. Retrieved from:

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele010.html

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education (2015,

January 11) It’s Elemental Rhenium. Retrieved from:

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele075.html