Gift of the Nile

Physical Geography

The Nile was part of Egypts physical geography, along with other land features like the dessert. These landmarks protected Egypt from Invaders and other threats. The dessert is unable to grow crops ,so all of Egypts civilizations are near the Nile where slit is produced where they can grow crops to live.The Nile delta played an important role on Egyptian life they depended on the river for food, water, and protection.


Pharaohs were the leader, or rulers of Egypt.They were well respected ,some of the most important Pharaohs were Menes, Cleopatra ,Khufu , Hatshepsut ,and Tutankhamun.

Menes is well known for uniting lower and upper Egypt, and was the founder of the first dynasty.

Cleopatra is noticed for her intelligence ,and the wars she won .

Khufu is known for building the pyramids of Giza ,he was a very harsh and cruel ruler.

Hatshepsut was the 5th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, she reigned longer than any other woman in the Egyptian dynasty.

Tutankhamun was the youngest pharaoh in Egyptian history ,placed at the throne at 9 or 10 and died at 18.

Social Hiearchy

Every civilization has social hierarchy in Egypts social hierarchy goes by rank .

Social hierarchy in Egypt:



*Scribes and Craftspeople

*Farmers and Slaves

Egptian gods

Egyptians were polytheistic ,they worshiped many gods.

such as:

*Re,also known as Amon Re,the sun god.

*Osiris,the god of the underworld.

*Isis, the goddess of magic.

*Horus, the sky god,or the god of Pharaohs.

*Thoth, the god of wisdom.

*Geb the Earth god.

Egyptians even worshiped household gods that they believed were in their homes.


Like it says in the other paragraph Egyptians were polytheistic and worshiped many gods,the Egyptians had as many as 2,000 gods, scientist claim .The Egyptians mummified their dead and buried them in tombs .They believed they could only reach their full potential if they were dead ,and believed in the underworld,or afterlife.They even wrote "the book of the dead"the book contains ideas and major believes in Egyptian religion.


Mummification is when they remove the brain and other organs,then dry out all the moisture from your body,so the tissues don't decompose. This happened to every pharaoh and some of the Egyptian population .Priest normally performed mummification , but sometimes other would do it too.Then the dried out body would then be wrapped in linen ,silk, and other cloths . Pharaohs were placed in tomes and then sealed off from invaders.

Roseta stone

The Rosetta stone is made of granite , it is written in two different languages Greek and Egyptian.It was also made into three scripts such as demotic, hieroglyphs, and Greek.The Rosetta stone was made in 196 b.c and was discovered in 1799 a.d by french explorer, Pierre Bouchard .Without the Rosetta stone we would know nothing about ancient Egypt.The languages were translated in the 1820"s by Jean Champollion a french scholar .