AP World History

1793: Chinese reject British requests for open trade

Britain's king went to China for the British envoy. The Chinese emperor saw the military threat that Britain posed and rejected trade.

Commissioner Lin

Lin Zexu was hired by the Chinese emperor to suppress the Opium trade. He was in the high ranks of the bureaucracy and was a strict and honest official. He used moral appeals, reasoned arguments, and political pressure to try not to have conflict. He also focused on health hazards. He collected opium that had been confiscated and thrown in the sea. He blocked European factories and searched people daily to get rid of opium.

1838-1876: Tanzimat Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was known as "The Sick Man of Europe", before it was known as a strong empire. The Ottoman's couldn't prevent regions from falling under Christian power and lost a large amount of land. In 1798 Napoleon took Egypt and other places like Greece achieved independence. They had a technological and military gap and relied on foreign loans. The Tanzimat reforms were far-reaching reformist measures. The Tanzimat took leadership to provide economic, social, and legal underpinnings. The Tanzimat created a process of modernization and Westernization. They gave non-Muslims equal rights, and modest educational openings for women.

Young Ottomans

The Young Ottomans were during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. They wanted major changes in the political system and favored a European- style democratic, constitutional regime. They thought this would overcome modernism and reject materialism. In the 1876 the Sultan Abd al-Hamid II (r. 1876-1909) accepted a constitution and an elected parliament but was ended soon after. After this the Sultan reverted to an older style of rule, claimed he was the caliph, successor of the Prophet, and protector of Muslims.
World History Taiping Rebellion


Chinese authorities started to "self-strengthen" their policies. This was so they could go back to a traditional China, but while doing this they were borrowing from the West. An example of this movement is more of the examination system to recruit their best men to be officials. Failure of this system was know at the end of the century.

1868: Meiji Restoration in Japan

Meiji was a 15-year old boy who was a descendent of the imperial family and the new emperor. His goal was to save Japan from foreign dominance. He had the goal to restore by transformation of Japanese society drawing.

1904-1905: Russo-Japan War

The war between Russia and Japan. Russia pressured China into granting a lease for an import. The war developed of the rivalry for dominance of Korea. Japan won. Japan forced Russia to abandon its expansion policy.