Course Standards

Max Wall

Standard 3

This standard is about the basic concepts of forensic science

Locard's Principle - every time you make contact with another person, place, or thing, it results in an exchange of physical materials

Frye Standard - Is a test to determine the admissibility of scientific evidence

Daubert Ruling - Daubert standard provides a rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony

The daubert ruling states that if the testimony is by and expert witness, or a reliable source, it is admissible

Testimonial Evidence - Consists of statements that are made in court by witnesses and that are offered as proof of the matter asserted, or of what is being discussed

Physical Evidence - Real evidence, or material evidence is any material object that plays some actual role in the matter that gave rise to the litigation

Class Evidence - Any characteristics to evidence that are common to a group

Individual Evidence - characteristics are those that can be used to identify an individual specimen

Forensic Pathology - The field of medicine concerned with determining cause of death

This is helpful when the cause of death is unknown, and can help solve a case or determine certain evidence

Forensic Anthropology - The examination of human skeletal remains for law enforcement agencies to determine the identity of unidentified bones

Chemistry is used in forensics for analyzing evidence such as DNA Analysis and blood specimens

Forensic biologists examine blood and other bodily fluids, hair, bones, insects and plant and animal remains to help identify victims and support criminal investigations

Standard 4

Standard 4 is mostly about what happens after death such as Autopsies and PMI

Autopsy

An autopsy is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination performed on a body after death, to evaluate disease or injury that may be present and to determine the cause and manner of a person's death

It is usually performed on a person to bring the victim's family closure, or to find the cause of death

An autopsy is conducted by a pathologist, which is a doctor with specialty level training in how to do the procedure and how to effectively analyze the tissues and body fluids

If the person's death is being investigated forensically, an autopsy may be legally mandated

The police may play a role in investigating the "crime scene," if there is one, and further look into evidence that could support a potential cause of death

Steps of an Autopsy

Begin with an examination of the outside of the body

Perform an X-ray

Take a blood sample

Open the body cavity once the initial examinations are complete

Examine each organ in the chest cavity individually

Observe the eyes carefully

Record the findings after the autopsy is complete

Post-Mortem interval - the time that has elapsed since a person has died

Five Manners of Death

Natural

Accidental

Homicidal

Suicidal

Undetermined

Standard 8

Standard 8 is mostly about fingerprints and DNA


Fingerprints

Galton's Principles:

A Fingerprint is an individual characteristic

A Fingerprint will remain unchanged during an individuals lifetime

Fingerprints have general ridge patterns that can be systematically classified


Fingerprints are also classified into different groups based on what they look like:

Loop

-Ulnar

-Radial

Whorl

-Plain

-Central pocket

-Double loop

-Accidental

Arch

-Plain

-Tented


DNA

This evidence has also become an invaluable tool for exonerating individuals who have been wrongfully convicted

It is used to prove someone innocent or guilty, or to disprove that someone was there or committed the crime.

DNA is handled by a forensic scientist in a lab and is handled very carefully

DNA evidence can come from skin cells, hair follicles, saliva, and blood

It is one of them most developed and useful forms of evidence that is used today

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