Spanish Flip Chart

By: Allison, Kate, Sayed, and Madison

Key

Star= vocabulary

Flower= verbs and conjugations

Rainbow= grammar

Circle- telling time

Vocabulary Review topics

Classroom Vocab

Los estacionces, meses, días, y fechas:

Los estacionces: Hay cuatro los estaciones, la primavera, el verano, el otoño, y el invierno. Cada estaciones son muy diferente y experiencias diferente tiempo.
Las meses: Hay doce meses en el año. El año empieza con la mes de enero. También todos nombres de las meses son masculino :


1. enero

2. febrero

3. marzo

4. abril

5. mayo

6. junio

7. julio

8. agosto

9. septiembre

10. octubre

11. noviembre

12. deciembre

Los días: Hay siete días en la semena. En español la semana empieza con lunes. También todos nombres de días son masculino:


1. lunes

2. martes

3. miércoles

4. jueves

5. viernes

6. sábado

7. domingo


Las fechas:

Weather Conditions

¿Qué tiempo hace?

Numbers

1 = uno. 2 = dos. 3 = tres. 4 = cuatro. 5 = cinco. 6 = sies. 7 = siete. 8 = ocho. 9 = nueve. 10 = diez. 11 = once. 12 = doce. 13 = trece. 14 = catorce. 15 = quince. 16 = diecisèis 17 = diecisiete 18 = dieciocho 19 = diecinueve 20 = veinte 21 = veintiuno 22 = veintidòs 23 = veinietrès 24 = veinticuatro 25 = veinticinco 26 = veintisèis 27 = ventisiete 28 = ventiocho 29 = veintinueve 30 = treinta

10 - diez

20 - veinte

30 - treinta

40 - cuarenta

50 - cincuenta

60 - sesenta

70 - setenta

80 - ochenta

90 - noventa

100 - cien

Greetings

Otras palabras que usar

¿Cómo te llamas?

Me llamo...

¿Cómo esta?

Muy bien, gracias

Hasta luego

Hasta pronto

Hasta manana

Bienvenidos

GRAMMAR REVIEW TOPICS:

Adjectives:

Adjectives are used to describe nouns, however in Spanish we place the adjective after the noun that it describes.


ex. the blue pen

La pluma azul


In Spanish adjectives can be either singular/plural and or feminine/masculine depending on the noun the adjective is describing. For instance when the noun is feminine (la, las) the adjective that follows the noun should end in an (a, as).


Singular:

ex. The pretty girl

La chica guapa


Plural:

ex. The pretty girls

Las chicas guapas


The same rule is applied when there is a masculine noun, when the noun is masculine (el, los) the adjective that follows should end in an (o, os).


Singular:

The tall man

El hombre alto


Plural:

the tall men

Los hombres altos


Some adjectives have "e" endings instead of "a" or "o" endings. These adjectives are considered "unisex" adjectives and do not change endings based on the gender of the noun. However if the noun is plural it is necessary to has an "s" to the end of the adjective.


Singular:

ex. the smart cat

el gato inteligente


ex. the popular movie

La película popular


Plural:

ex. the smart cats

Los gatos inteligentes.


ex. the popular movies

Las películas populares


Below are some commonly used adjectives that you may find useful.


Comparisions:

Comparisions of EQUALITY:


To compare two things in Spanish that have equal characteristics we use either tan or tanto(-a, -os, -as):


ex. The dog is as fat as the cat.

El perro es tan gordo como el gato.


In order to form comparisons of equality using either adverbs or adjectives we must follow a certain formula: tan + adjective (adverb) + como

ex. The girl is as tall as the boy.

La chica es tan alta como el chico.


ex. The apple is as delicious as the banana.

La manzana es tan sabrosa como el plátano.



In order to form comparisons of equality with nouns, we must use the following formula: tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como

Take notice that the form of tanto used in each example matches the gender (femenino o masculino) of the noun.


ex. Mark has as many pencils as Julio.

Mark tiene tantos lapízes como Julio.


ex. I have as many books as Shelly.

Yo tengo tantos libros como Shelly.


ex. Kevin has as many strawberries as her.

Kevin tiene tantas fresas como ella.


In order to form comparisons of equality with actions (not things), and there is no adjective present, we must use the following formula: verbs + tanto + como


ex. Greg plays as much as Luke.

Greg juega tanto como Luke.


ex. Maddie runs as much as Sarah.

Maddie corre tanto como Sarah.


In order to form comparisons of equality with actions (not things), and there is an adjective present, we must use the following formula: verb + tan + adjective (masculine form) + como


ex. John sleeps as little as Kim.

John duerme tan poco como Kim.


Comparisions of INEQUALITY:


In Spanish when comparing two things that are unequal we use either más or menos to show that something is greater than or less than.


To form comparisons of inequality with adjectives, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + adjective + que.


ex. I am taller than you.

Yo soy más alto que tú.


ex. The apple is smaller than the orange.

La manzana es menos grande que la naranja.


To form comparisons of inequality with nouns, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + noun + que

ex. Keith has less pens than Ashley.

Keith tiene menos plumas que Ashley.


To form comparisons of inequality with adverbs, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + adverb + que


ex. Emily writes more slowly than Matt.

Emily escribe más lentamente que Matt.


Affirmitive and Negative Words

Affirmitive and Negative words are words that mean the opposite in Spanish.


ex. the opposite of "always" would be "never"


Below is a list of affirmative and negative words with their English meanings: (Affirmatives come first then Negatives)


-Siempre (always) & Nunca (never)

-También (also) & Tampoco (neither/also)

- Con (with) & Sin (without)

- Alguien (someone) & Nadie (no one)

- Algo (something) & Nada (nothing)

- Alguno (any) & Ninguno (none)

- O... o (or... or) & Ni... ni (neither... nor)


Telling Time

Es - 1:00

Son - todas las otras horas

Ejemplo: Es la una, Son las ocho

Usando 'menos'

A + la/las + tiempo

Otro palabras que usar para tiempo

Ayer

Anoche

El mañana

El año pasado

La semana pasado

Mediodía

Medianoche

Por la mañana

Por la tarde

Por la noche

Demonstrative Adjectives




DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES:

singular feminine

esta (this)

esa (that)

aquella (that)


plural feminine

estas (these)

esas (those)

aquellas (those)


Singular masculine

este (this)

ese (that)

aquel (that)


plural masculine

estos (these)

esos (those)

aquellos (those)


Demonstrative adjectives are used to tell where an object or objects are in relation to you


A rhyme that will help you memorize your demonstrative adjectives is:

"This and these have T's that and those don't "

Ex: esTe - this EsTos- these

Ese- that Esos- those

(realize that there are NO T's in the line above)



  • Este, esta, estos and estas are used to point out things (nouns) which are physically close to the speaker as well as to whomever he or she is speaking, usually within easy reaching distance. It corresponds to the English "this" or "these" and would be used under the same circumstances.
  • Ese, esa, esos and esas are used to point out things (nouns) which are further away from the speaker (but not necessarily to the listeners), not within easy reaching distance. It corresponds to the English "that" or "those" and would be used under the same circumstances.
  • Aquel, aquella, aquellos and aquellas are used to point out things (nouns) which are far away from both the speaker and the listeners, but within visual distance. It corresponds to the English "that one (way) over there" or "those ones (way) over there" and would be used under the same circumstances.



Objetos directos y indirectos.

Objetos directos

me (me)

te (you-familiar)

lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)


nos (us)

os (you-all-familiar)

los, las (them, you-all-formal)

The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.


The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.In an affirmative statement with one verb, the direct object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.

Ex: Tengo la pluma.

I have the pen.

La tengo.

I have it.


If you are using an infinitive or a verb ending in the tenses - iendo or - ando then you can attach the direct object to the end.

Ex: Yo lo quiero jugar.

Yo quiero jugarlo.


Objetos indirectos


me (to/for me) nos (to/for us)

Te (to/for you informal).

Le (to/for you formal, him, her, it)

nos (to/for us)

os (to/for you informal)

les (to/for them, you formal)



The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.



When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. You can remember this by the acronym RID. R, for reflexives (which are not being used in this case) I for indirect objects and D for direct objects. This will help you get RID of your "little words" worries.

When using direct and indirect object pronouns you can't use a double l, instead you will put se.


le lo = se lo

le la = se la

le los = se los

le las = se las

les lo = se lo

les la = se la

les los = se los

les las = se las





Irregular Present Tense Verbs

There are several irregular present tense verbs. Despite their odd conjugations they must be memorized!


Ser- to be (characteristics)

yo- soy (I am) nosotros- somos (we are)

tú- eres. (You are) vosotros- sois (y'all are)

el/ella/usted-es (he/she is or you (formal) are)

ellos/ellas/ustedes- son (they are/ ya’ll are)


Ir- to go

yo- voy (I go) nosotros- vamos (we go)

tú- vas (you go) vosotros- vais (ya’ll go)

el/ella/usted- va (he/she goes or you (formal) go)

ellos/ellas/ustedes-van (they go/ ya’ll go)


Estar- to be

yo- estoy (I am) nosotros- estamos (we are)

tú- estás (You are) vosotros- estáis (y'all are)

el/ella/usted- está (he/she is or you (formal) are)

ellos/ellas/ustedes- están (they are/ ya’ll are)


Haber- to have done

yo- he (I have done) nosotros- hemos (we have done)

tú- has (you have done) vosotros- habéis (ya’ll have done)

el/ella/usted- ha (he/she have done or you (formal) have done)

ellos/ellas/ustedes- han (they have done/ ya’ll have done)


Contener- To contain

Yo: contengo (I contain) Nosotros: contenemos (We contain)

Tú: contienes (You contain) Vosotros: contenéis (ya’ll contain)

el/ella/usted: contiene (he/she contain or you (formal) contain

ellos/ellas/ustedes: contienen (They contain/ya’ll contain)

Decir- to say

Yo: digo (I say) Nosotros: decimos (we say)

Tú: dices (You say) Vosotros: decís (ya’ll say)

el/ella/usted: dice (he/she says or you(formal) say)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: dicen (they say/ ya’ll say)


Mantener -to maintain

Yo: mantengo (I maintain) Nosotros: mantenemos (we maintain)

Tú: mantienes (You maintain) Vosotros: mantenéis (ya’ll maintain)

el/ella/usted: mantiene (he/she maintains or you (formal) maintain)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: mantienen (they maintain/ ya’ll maintain)


OÍR- to hear

Yo: oigo ( I hear) Nosotros: oímos (we hear)

Tú: oyes (You hear) Vosotros: oís (ya’ll here)

el/ella/usted: oye (he/she hear or you(formal) hear)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: oyen (they hear/ ya’ll hear)


Prevenir- to prevent

Yo: prevengo (I prevent) Nosotros: prevenimos (we prevent)

Tú: previenes (you prevent) Vosotros: prevenís (ya’ll prevent)

el/ella/usted: previene (he/she prevents or you (formal) prevent)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: previenen (they prevent/ ya’ll prevent)


Tener-to have

Yo: tengo (I have) Nosotros: tenemos (we have)

Tú: tienes (you have) Vosotros: tenéis (ya’ll have)

el/ella/usted: tiene (he/she has or you (formal) have)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: tienen (they have/ ya’ll have)


Venir-to arrive

Yo: vengo (I arrive) Nosotros: venimos (we arrive)

Tú: vienes (you arrive) Vosotros: venís (ya’ll arrive)

el/ella/usted: viene (he/she arrives or you (formal) arrive)

ellos/ellas/ustedes: vienen (they arrive/ya’ll arrive)



Sources-

http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/39

https://conjuguemos.com/chart.php?language=spanish&id=5&etre=no&commands=no&source=public&all=no



Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show that a person performing the action toward themselves. In other words a verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same.


Yo me baño. (I bathe myself)

Me llamo Johnny. (I call myself Johnny)

Yo me veo en la televisión. (I see myself on tv)


Compare this following example with the examples above:


Yo me lavo el perro.(I wash the dog) - the dog is the object of wash

Therefore this sentence is not reflective.


Reflexive Pronouns- These pronouns are used with reflexive verbs

1st person Me (Myself) Nos (we/ourselves)

2nd person Te (yourself) Os (yourselves)

3rd person Se (he/she/you) Se (themselves, yourselves, they/ya’ll)

As you can see these verbs are almost identical to normal pronouns (yo, el,ella…) with the exception of se, used in the 3rd person (which can be used in either a singular or a plural context)


Reflexive pronouns are used to indicate that the direct object of the verb is also the subject and that the subject is performing the action on him-or herself.

Reflexive verbs, when unconjugated have a se ending.

For example lavarse (to wash). So when you conjugate the verb lavarse, you simply conjugate the verb normally and drop the se. Remember to place the reflexive pronoun before the verb.


Yo me lavo (I wash myself) Nosotros nos lavamos (we wash ourselves)

te lavas (you wash yourself) Vosotros os laváis (you/ya’ll wash yourselves)

El/ellas/usted se lava (he/she washes him/her self or you wash yourself)

Ellos/ellas/ustedes se lavan (they wash themselves or ya’ll wash yourselves)


Remember a verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same!

Reflexive verbs can be used to show an emotional response and to show someone is doing something to him/her self.

Sources-

http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/reflexive1.htm

http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/85


Verbs like Gustar

Gustar and the verbs like it (faltar, encantar, molestar, parecer, disgustar, etc.) behave differently from other verbs in Spanish and English for that matter.


For example in english, you would say “I like the the steak”. In spanish, you would say “Me gusta el bistec”, which means the same thing, but it translates as “The steak is pleasing to me”.


In addition, verbs like gustar, have a slightly different conjugation when used with plural items.

For example-

Me encantan los libros. (I love the books)

Me gustan las chicas. (I love the girls)


Also there are only two forms of gustar and verbs like it: the singular and plural. So despite the pronoun, the verb encantar will either be encanta or encantan (this is the same for the other verbs like gustar, with slightly different conjugations).


Nos encantan los libros. (We love the books)

Les gustan los libros. (They like the books)


Furthermore the pronouns for verbs like gustar are different. They are almost the same as reflexive pronouns except for the se, which is replaced by le (he/she/you inf.) and les (they/ ya’ll)


Me (I) Nos (we)

Te (you) Os (ya’ll)

Le (he/she. you inf.) Les (they/ ya’ll)


Examples-

A nosotros nos molesta el ruido. (We are bothered by the noise.)

Me agrada su visita. (I am pleased by your visit.)

Brandon le disgusta su madre. (0Brandon disgusts his mom.)


Finally, to clarify who is speaking, it is useful to add prepositional phrases to the sentence:


Compare:

Le gusta la silla. (Who likes the chair)

A Christine le gusta la silla. (Christine likes the chair)

The second example is a better sentence because it shows who likes the chair.


Sources-

http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/gustar.htm

http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/show/40


-go verbs

-go verbs are verbs that end in -go in the yo form of the present tense.

poner: yo - pongo

tener: yo - tengo

oír: yo - oigo

Hacer: yo - hago

Salir: yo - salgo

Traer: yo - traigo

Venir: yo - vengo

Caer: yo - caigo

Verbs such as tener, poner, venir, and salir do not stem-change. You just simply replace the er/ir ending with -go. For verbs like traer and caer, instead of just adding "-go", you add "-igo".

Saber Vs. Conocer



Saber and Conocer:


Saber and conocer are two verbs that mean to know.


Saber- To know

yo- sé nosotros- sabemos

tu- sabes vosotros- sabéis

el/ella/usted- sabe ellos/ellas/ustedes- saben


Conocer- To know

yo- conozco nosotros- conocemos

tu- conoces vosotros- conocéis

el/ella/usted- conoce ellos/ellas/ustedes- conocen


Even though both of these verbs mean the same thing (to know) they are used in different contexts (like estar vs. ser).


Saber is used when you are talking about knowledge about something, such as facts, or an activity.

Yo sé hablar español. (I know how to speak spanish)

Yo sé nadar. (I know how to swim)

Yo sé leer. ( I know how to read)


Conocer, is used to express that someone is or isn’t acquainted/familiar with people, places, movie, or book.

Yo conozco a Marco. (I am familiar with Marco)

El conoce Seoul y Tokyo. (He is familiar with Seoul and Tokyo)

¿Tú conoces a su padre? (Are you familiar with his father?/Do you know his father?)


However, sometimes saber and conocer can be used interchangeably, when talking about a subject or science.


John sabe/conoce mucho de la biología. (John knows about/is familiar with biology.)


Anna sabe/conoce cómo volar un avión (Anna knows how to/ is familiar with flying an airplane.)


These cases may be rare. To sum it up, always remember that saber, is to know about facts or information, and conocer, is to be familiar with people, places, or things.

sources-

http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/sabcon.htm

http://spanish.about.com/cs/vocabulary/a/verbs_for_know.htm


Stem Changing

In all three conjugations of verbs (-ar, -er, and -ir) there are some verbs whose vowels change within the stem. These stem-changes occur in all forms except nosotros and vosotros

There ere are five types of stem-changes: o->ue, e -> ie, e -> i, i -> ie, u -> ue, .


querer - to want

quiero queremos

quieres queréis

quiere quieren

The Boot!

As you can see, the stem change is only applied in 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular and 3rd person plural, forming the shape of a boot in the conjugation chart. The "boot" is a good way to remember which persons have the stem change.

Some Common e -> ie Verbs


divertirse to have fun pensar (en) to think (about)

atender to attend to empezar to begin perder to lose

to preferir to prefer

encerrar to enclose querer to want

cerrar to close entender to understand recomendar to recommend

comenzar to begin fregar

sentar (se) to sit down

sentir to feel

defender to defend mentir to lie tropezar (con) to stumble (into, across)

descender to descend

despertar (se) to wake up nevar to snow

2. o to ue


This is the 2nd most common stem change after i->ie.


Conjugation Example


soñar - to dream

sueño soñamos

sueñas soñáis

sueña sueñan

Some Common o -> ue Verbs


doler to hurt recordar to remember

dormir to sleep remover to remove

almorzar to have lunch encontrar to find resolver to resolve

llover to rain revolver

contar to count morir to die sonar to sound

costar to cost poder to be able to

devolver to return (something) probar to taste, to prove volar to fly

disolver to dissolve

3. e to i


Conjugation Example


repetir - to repeat

repito repetimos

repites repetís

repite repiten

Some Common e -> i Verbs


repetir to repeat

reírse (de) to laugh/to make fun of

despedir to fire/to say goodbye seguir to follow

servir to serve

sonreírse to smile

vestirse to get dressed

4. i to ie


There are only only two commonly used verbs whose stem changes from i to ie:


Conjugation Examples


adquirir - to acquire inquirir - to inquire

adquiero adquirimos inquiero inquirimos

adquieres adquirís inquieres inquirís

adquiere adquieren inquiere inquieren

5. u to ue


There is only one commonly used verb whose stem changes from u to ue, and it is a very common verb.


Conjugation Example


jugar - to play

juego jugamos

juegas jugáis

juega juegan