Spanish Flip Chart
By: Allison, Kate, Sayed, and Madison
Flower= verbs and conjugations
Circle- telling time
Vocabulary Review topics
Los estacionces, meses, días, y fechas:
¿Qué tiempo hace?
1 = uno. 2 = dos. 3 = tres. 4 = cuatro. 5 = cinco. 6 = sies. 7 = siete. 8 = ocho. 9 = nueve. 10 = diez. 11 = once. 12 = doce. 13 = trece. 14 = catorce. 15 = quince. 16 = diecisèis 17 = diecisiete 18 = dieciocho 19 = diecinueve 20 = veinte 21 = veintiuno 22 = veintidòs 23 = veinietrès 24 = veinticuatro 25 = veinticinco 26 = veintisèis 27 = ventisiete 28 = ventiocho 29 = veintinueve 30 = treinta
10 - diez
20 - veinte
30 - treinta
40 - cuarenta
50 - cincuenta
60 - sesenta
70 - setenta
80 - ochenta
90 - noventa
100 - cien
Otras palabras que usar
¿Cómo te llamas?
Muy bien, gracias
GRAMMAR REVIEW TOPICS:
ex. the blue pen
La pluma azul
In Spanish adjectives can be either singular/plural and or feminine/masculine depending on the noun the adjective is describing. For instance when the noun is feminine (la, las) the adjective that follows the noun should end in an (a, as).
ex. The pretty girl
La chica guapa
ex. The pretty girls
Las chicas guapas
The same rule is applied when there is a masculine noun, when the noun is masculine (el, los) the adjective that follows should end in an (o, os).
The tall man
El hombre alto
the tall men
Los hombres altos
Some adjectives have "e" endings instead of "a" or "o" endings. These adjectives are considered "unisex" adjectives and do not change endings based on the gender of the noun. However if the noun is plural it is necessary to has an "s" to the end of the adjective.
ex. the smart cat
el gato inteligente
ex. the popular movie
La película popular
ex. the smart cats
Los gatos inteligentes.
ex. the popular movies
Las películas populares
Below are some commonly used adjectives that you may find useful.
To compare two things in Spanish that have equal characteristics we use either tan or tanto(-a, -os, -as):
ex. The dog is as fat as the cat.
El perro es tan gordo como el gato.
In order to form comparisons of equality using either adverbs or adjectives we must follow a certain formula: tan + adjective (adverb) + como
ex. The girl is as tall as the boy.
La chica es tan alta como el chico.
ex. The apple is as delicious as the banana.
La manzana es tan sabrosa como el plátano.
In order to form comparisons of equality with nouns, we must use the following formula: tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como
Take notice that the form of tanto used in each example matches the gender (femenino o masculino) of the noun.
ex. Mark has as many pencils as Julio.
Mark tiene tantos lapízes como Julio.
ex. I have as many books as Shelly.
Yo tengo tantos libros como Shelly.
ex. Kevin has as many strawberries as her.
Kevin tiene tantas fresas como ella.
In order to form comparisons of equality with actions (not things), and there is no adjective present, we must use the following formula: verbs + tanto + como
ex. Greg plays as much as Luke.
Greg juega tanto como Luke.
ex. Maddie runs as much as Sarah.
Maddie corre tanto como Sarah.
In order to form comparisons of equality with actions (not things), and there is an adjective present, we must use the following formula: verb + tan + adjective (masculine form) + como
ex. John sleeps as little as Kim.
John duerme tan poco como Kim.
Comparisions of INEQUALITY:
In Spanish when comparing two things that are unequal we use either más or menos to show that something is greater than or less than.
To form comparisons of inequality with adjectives, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + adjective + que.
ex. I am taller than you.
Yo soy más alto que tú.
ex. The apple is smaller than the orange.
La manzana es menos grande que la naranja.
To form comparisons of inequality with nouns, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + noun + que
ex. Keith has less pens than Ashley.
Keith tiene menos plumas que Ashley.
To form comparisons of inequality with adverbs, we must use the following formula: más (menos) + adverb + que
ex. Emily writes more slowly than Matt.
Emily escribe más lentamente que Matt.
Affirmitive and Negative Words
ex. the opposite of "always" would be "never"
Below is a list of affirmative and negative words with their English meanings: (Affirmatives come first then Negatives)
-Siempre (always) & Nunca (never)
-También (also) & Tampoco (neither/also)
- Con (with) & Sin (without)
- Alguien (someone) & Nadie (no one)
- Algo (something) & Nada (nothing)
- Alguno (any) & Ninguno (none)
- O... o (or... or) & Ni... ni (neither... nor)
Es - 1:00
Son - todas las otras horas
Ejemplo: Es la una, Son las ocho
A + la/las + tiempo
Otro palabras que usar para tiempo
El año pasado
La semana pasado
Por la mañana
Por la tarde
Por la noche
Demonstrative adjectives are used to tell where an object or objects are in relation to you
A rhyme that will help you memorize your demonstrative adjectives is:
"This and these have T's that and those don't "
Ex: esTe - this EsTos- these
Ese- that Esos- those
(realize that there are NO T's in the line above)
- Este, esta, estos and estas are used to point out things (nouns) which are physically close to the speaker as well as to whomever he or she is speaking, usually within easy reaching distance. It corresponds to the English "this" or "these" and would be used under the same circumstances.
- Ese, esa, esos and esas are used to point out things (nouns) which are further away from the speaker (but not necessarily to the listeners), not within easy reaching distance. It corresponds to the English "that" or "those" and would be used under the same circumstances.
- Aquel, aquella, aquellos and aquellas are used to point out things (nouns) which are far away from both the speaker and the listeners, but within visual distance. It corresponds to the English "that one (way) over there" or "those ones (way) over there" and would be used under the same circumstances.
Objetos directos y indirectos.
lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)
los, las (them, you-all-formal)
The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.
The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.In an affirmative statement with one verb, the direct object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
Ex: Tengo la pluma.
I have the pen.
I have it.
If you are using an infinitive or a verb ending in the tenses - iendo or - ando then you can attach the direct object to the end.
Ex: Yo lo quiero jugar.
Yo quiero jugarlo.
me (to/for me) nos (to/for us)
Te (to/for you informal).
Le (to/for you formal, him, her, it)
nos (to/for us)
os (to/for you informal)
les (to/for them, you formal)
The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.
When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. You can remember this by the acronym RID. R, for reflexives (which are not being used in this case) I for indirect objects and D for direct objects. This will help you get RID of your "little words" worries.
When using direct and indirect object pronouns you can't use a double l, instead you will put se.
le lo = se lo
le la = se la
le los = se los
le las = se las
les lo = se lo
les la = se la
les los = se los
les las = se las
Irregular Present Tense Verbs
There are several irregular present tense verbs. Despite their odd conjugations they must be memorized!
Ser- to be (characteristics)
yo- soy (I am) nosotros- somos (we are)
tú- eres. (You are) vosotros- sois (y'all are)
el/ella/usted-es (he/she is or you (formal) are)
ellos/ellas/ustedes- son (they are/ ya’ll are)
Ir- to go
yo- voy (I go) nosotros- vamos (we go)
tú- vas (you go) vosotros- vais (ya’ll go)
el/ella/usted- va (he/she goes or you (formal) go)
ellos/ellas/ustedes-van (they go/ ya’ll go)
Estar- to be
yo- estoy (I am) nosotros- estamos (we are)
tú- estás (You are) vosotros- estáis (y'all are)
el/ella/usted- está (he/she is or you (formal) are)
ellos/ellas/ustedes- están (they are/ ya’ll are)
Haber- to have done
yo- he (I have done) nosotros- hemos (we have done)
tú- has (you have done) vosotros- habéis (ya’ll have done)
el/ella/usted- ha (he/she have done or you (formal) have done)
ellos/ellas/ustedes- han (they have done/ ya’ll have done)
Contener- To contain
Yo: contengo (I contain) Nosotros: contenemos (We contain)
Tú: contienes (You contain) Vosotros: contenéis (ya’ll contain)
el/ella/usted: contiene (he/she contain or you (formal) contain
ellos/ellas/ustedes: contienen (They contain/ya’ll contain)
Decir- to say
Yo: digo (I say) Nosotros: decimos (we say)
Tú: dices (You say) Vosotros: decís (ya’ll say)
el/ella/usted: dice (he/she says or you(formal) say)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: dicen (they say/ ya’ll say)
Mantener -to maintain
Yo: mantengo (I maintain) Nosotros: mantenemos (we maintain)
Tú: mantienes (You maintain) Vosotros: mantenéis (ya’ll maintain)
el/ella/usted: mantiene (he/she maintains or you (formal) maintain)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: mantienen (they maintain/ ya’ll maintain)
OÍR- to hear
Yo: oigo ( I hear) Nosotros: oímos (we hear)
Tú: oyes (You hear) Vosotros: oís (ya’ll here)
el/ella/usted: oye (he/she hear or you(formal) hear)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: oyen (they hear/ ya’ll hear)
Prevenir- to prevent
Yo: prevengo (I prevent) Nosotros: prevenimos (we prevent)
Tú: previenes (you prevent) Vosotros: prevenís (ya’ll prevent)
el/ella/usted: previene (he/she prevents or you (formal) prevent)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: previenen (they prevent/ ya’ll prevent)
Yo: tengo (I have) Nosotros: tenemos (we have)
Tú: tienes (you have) Vosotros: tenéis (ya’ll have)
el/ella/usted: tiene (he/she has or you (formal) have)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: tienen (they have/ ya’ll have)
Yo: vengo (I arrive) Nosotros: venimos (we arrive)
Tú: vienes (you arrive) Vosotros: venís (ya’ll arrive)
el/ella/usted: viene (he/she arrives or you (formal) arrive)
ellos/ellas/ustedes: vienen (they arrive/ya’ll arrive)
Reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show that a person performing the action toward themselves. In other words a verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same.
Yo me baño. (I bathe myself)
Me llamo Johnny. (I call myself Johnny)
Yo me veo en la televisión. (I see myself on tv)
Compare this following example with the examples above:
Yo me lavo el perro.(I wash the dog) - the dog is the object of wash
Therefore this sentence is not reflective.
Reflexive Pronouns- These pronouns are used with reflexive verbs
1st person Me (Myself) Nos (we/ourselves)
2nd person Te (yourself) Os (yourselves)
3rd person Se (he/she/you) Se (themselves, yourselves, they/ya’ll)
As you can see these verbs are almost identical to normal pronouns (yo, el,ella…) with the exception of se, used in the 3rd person (which can be used in either a singular or a plural context)
Reflexive pronouns are used to indicate that the direct object of the verb is also the subject and that the subject is performing the action on him-or herself.
Reflexive verbs, when unconjugated have a se ending.
For example lavarse (to wash). So when you conjugate the verb lavarse, you simply conjugate the verb normally and drop the se. Remember to place the reflexive pronoun before the verb.
Yo me lavo (I wash myself) Nosotros nos lavamos (we wash ourselves)
Tú te lavas (you wash yourself) Vosotros os laváis (you/ya’ll wash yourselves)
El/ellas/usted se lava (he/she washes him/her self or you wash yourself)
Ellos/ellas/ustedes se lavan (they wash themselves or ya’ll wash yourselves)
Remember a verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same!
Reflexive verbs can be used to show an emotional response and to show someone is doing something to him/her self.
Verbs like Gustar
Gustar and the verbs like it (faltar, encantar, molestar, parecer, disgustar, etc.) behave differently from other verbs in Spanish and English for that matter.
For example in english, you would say “I like the the steak”. In spanish, you would say “Me gusta el bistec”, which means the same thing, but it translates as “The steak is pleasing to me”.
In addition, verbs like gustar, have a slightly different conjugation when used with plural items.
Me encantan los libros. (I love the books)
Me gustan las chicas. (I love the girls)
Also there are only two forms of gustar and verbs like it: the singular and plural. So despite the pronoun, the verb encantar will either be encanta or encantan (this is the same for the other verbs like gustar, with slightly different conjugations).
Nos encantan los libros. (We love the books)
Les gustan los libros. (They like the books)
Furthermore the pronouns for verbs like gustar are different. They are almost the same as reflexive pronouns except for the se, which is replaced by le (he/she/you inf.) and les (they/ ya’ll)
Me (I) Nos (we)
Te (you) Os (ya’ll)
Le (he/she. you inf.) Les (they/ ya’ll)
A nosotros nos molesta el ruido. (We are bothered by the noise.)
Me agrada su visita. (I am pleased by your visit.)
Brandon le disgusta su madre. (0Brandon disgusts his mom.)
Finally, to clarify who is speaking, it is useful to add prepositional phrases to the sentence:
Le gusta la silla. (Who likes the chair)
A Christine le gusta la silla. (Christine likes the chair)
The second example is a better sentence because it shows who likes the chair.
-go verbs are verbs that end in -go in the yo form of the present tense.
poner: yo - pongo
tener: yo - tengo
oír: yo - oigo
Hacer: yo - hago
Salir: yo - salgo
Traer: yo - traigo
Venir: yo - vengo
Caer: yo - caigo
Verbs such as tener, poner, venir, and salir do not stem-change. You just simply replace the er/ir ending with -go. For verbs like traer and caer, instead of just adding "-go", you add "-igo".
Saber Vs. Conocer
Saber and Conocer:
Saber and conocer are two verbs that mean to know.
Saber- To know
yo- sé nosotros- sabemos
tu- sabes vosotros- sabéis
el/ella/usted- sabe ellos/ellas/ustedes- saben
Conocer- To know
yo- conozco nosotros- conocemos
tu- conoces vosotros- conocéis
el/ella/usted- conoce ellos/ellas/ustedes- conocen
Even though both of these verbs mean the same thing (to know) they are used in different contexts (like estar vs. ser).
Saber is used when you are talking about knowledge about something, such as facts, or an activity.
Yo sé hablar español. (I know how to speak spanish)
Yo sé nadar. (I know how to swim)
Yo sé leer. ( I know how to read)
Conocer, is used to express that someone is or isn’t acquainted/familiar with people, places, movie, or book.
Yo conozco a Marco. (I am familiar with Marco)
El conoce Seoul y Tokyo. (He is familiar with Seoul and Tokyo)
¿Tú conoces a su padre? (Are you familiar with his father?/Do you know his father?)
However, sometimes saber and conocer can be used interchangeably, when talking about a subject or science.
John sabe/conoce mucho de la biología. (John knows about/is familiar with biology.)
Anna sabe/conoce cómo volar un avión (Anna knows how to/ is familiar with flying an airplane.)
These cases may be rare. To sum it up, always remember that saber, is to know about facts or information, and conocer, is to be familiar with people, places, or things.
There ere are five types of stem-changes: o->ue, e -> ie, e -> i, i -> ie, u -> ue, .
querer - to want
As you can see, the stem change is only applied in 1st, 2nd, 3rd person singular and 3rd person plural, forming the shape of a boot in the conjugation chart. The "boot" is a good way to remember which persons have the stem change.
Some Common e -> ie Verbs
divertirse to have fun pensar (en) to think (about)
atender to attend to empezar to begin perder to lose
to preferir to prefer
encerrar to enclose querer to want
cerrar to close entender to understand recomendar to recommend
comenzar to begin fregar
sentar (se) to sit down
sentir to feel
defender to defend mentir to lie tropezar (con) to stumble (into, across)
descender to descend
despertar (se) to wake up nevar to snow
2. o to ue
This is the 2nd most common stem change after i->ie.
soñar - to dream
Some Common o -> ue Verbs
doler to hurt recordar to remember
dormir to sleep remover to remove
almorzar to have lunch encontrar to find resolver to resolve
llover to rain revolver
contar to count morir to die sonar to sound
costar to cost poder to be able to
devolver to return (something) probar to taste, to prove volar to fly
disolver to dissolve
3. e to i
repetir - to repeat
Some Common e -> i Verbs
repetir to repeat
reírse (de) to laugh/to make fun of
despedir to fire/to say goodbye seguir to follow
servir to serve
sonreírse to smile
vestirse to get dressed
4. i to ie
There are only only two commonly used verbs whose stem changes from i to ie:
adquirir - to acquire inquirir - to inquire
adquiero adquirimos inquiero inquirimos
adquieres adquirís inquieres inquirís
adquiere adquieren inquiere inquieren
5. u to ue
There is only one commonly used verb whose stem changes from u to ue, and it is a very common verb.
jugar - to play