Digestive & Excretory Systems

The digestion & after digestion processes

The Digestive System - the body system that digests food

Functions of the Organs

Mouth: you mechanically break down food, and saliva mixes with it and breaks it down as you swallow it

Esophagus: carries food to the stomach

Stomach: digests the food through stomach muscles, acids, and enzymes

small intestine: where the majority of digestion takes place, and absorbs the nutrients from the food

Small Intestine: where the majority of digestion takes place, and absorbs the nutrients from the food

Large Intestine: absorbs water from the indigestible food left

Anus: a ringlike muscle that pushes the waste out the body

Liver: continues to digest food, and metabolizes it

Pancreas: converts food into energy

Gallbladder: storage for bile used in digestion

Why is Large Food Digestion so Important?

Breaking down large food molecules is important because they can not cross through membranes if they are so big, so they must be broken down to smaller states so it can cross through the membranes, and enter the bloodstream.


The enzymes break down large proteins so they can be solvable.

Digestive System Diagram

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Disorders of the Digestive System

Lactose Intolerance - Lactose Intolerance is a disorder in which a person lacks the enzyme to digest milk. Every 3 and 5 Americans have this disorder, and there are no visible symptoms besides your body reacting to the intake of dairy products. You can treat this by taking over-the-counter drugs which will implement an enzyme to break down lactose, but it cannot be cured.

Diverticulitis - Diverticulitis is a disorder where you get bulges throughout your intestinal tract, yet it’s only likely to occur in those over 70, and even that is a chance of 3 out of 5. Signs of this could be cramps, fevers, abdominal swelling, and more. You can treat this through antibiotics, ibuprofen, and other over the counter treatments.

Excretory System - the body system that collects and eliminates waste


Excretion is the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.

Diagram of the Kidneys

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Disorders of the Excretory System

Nephritis - Nephritis is the inflammation of the kidneys, and is seen through pain in the kidneys, smelly or bloody urine, and other similar symptoms. This can be treated through antibiotics, and if it is not treated early there may be a need of steroids.

Kidney Stones - Kidney stones are small, solid deposits of calcium, and must travel through the urinary tract causing extreme pain. They can be spotted through fevers, painful urinating, sharp pains in your lower back, vomiting, and more. You can treat this with just consuming liquids to help pass it through, or you may need painkillers if they get large.