Chapter 3 Section 1

World History

Early Civilization of the India and Pakistian

Geography of the Indian Subcontinent

  • Subcontinent- large landmass that juts out from a continent
  • Three zones: Gangetic (N), dry Decan Plateau (raised area leveled land), and costal plains

Indus Civilization Rises and Falls

  • Earliest South Asian Civilization started in present day Pakistan
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were possibly twin capitals

Making a Living by Farming and Trading

  • Moat People were farmers
  • -wheat, barley, melons, dates
  • - Fist to cultivate and Weave cotton
  • Merchants and traders
  • - Cotton cloth,grain, copper, pears, ivory

Aryan Civilization Develops During the Vedic Age

  • Nomads flocked towards Central Asia
  • Nomads married locals and called themselves Aryans
  • Acculturation-blending or two or more cultures

From Nomadic Life to Farming

  • Began to cultivate crops and breed cattle
  • made tools out of Iron
  • Tribes were led by rajahs
  • -ruled with the help of elders in the tribe

Aryan Structure of Society

  • Social structure was based on Occupation

Aryan Religious Beliefs Develop

  • Polytheistic
  • Worshiped gods and goddesses who embodied natural forces
  • - Sky, Sun, Storm, Fire
  • Indra- God of War

Aryan Religious Beliefs Develop

  • some moved towards brahman- a single spiritual power existed beyond the many gods of Vedas
  • Mystics would seek direct communion with divine forces
  • - through mediation and yoga