Amendment Project

Abbie short, Parker Perry, Jordan Asebedo

9th amendment

“The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be constructed to deny or disparage other retained by the people.”

The argument that disputed between the Federalist and Anti Federalist in 1787, argued on whether the Bill or Rights should be added or not. The main concern was that by listing the rights it could problematically enlarge the powers of the government. They thought there were too many rights to write down, therefore this amendment is what ensures the people that they have several more rights then what are already stated. At the end of the list of rights to be added to Article I, Section 9 Madison would have placed the language that was the forerunner to the Ninth Amendment. This amendment was important to the people. They thought that it was necessary because they to needed know that they had other rights than just the one that were listed in the Constitution. This new amendment was very important to everyone, and was ratified in 1791.

8th amendment

"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

The 8th amendment was ratified on December 15th 1791.This amendment prevented the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishments. It was adopted as part of the Bill of rights in 1791 and was based on the English Bill of Rights of 1685.This idea of was originally inspired by the case in England of Titus Oates who was tried for multiple acts of perjury which had caused many executions of people whom Oates had wrongly accused. Oates was sentenced to imprisonment including an annual ordeal of being taken out for two days pillory plus one day of whipping while tied to a moving cart. The Oates case eventually became a topic of the U.S. Supreme Court’s Eighth Amendment jurisprudence. England's declaration was approved by Parliament in February 1689 and was then approved by King William III. Parliament then enacted the English Bill of Rights into law in December of 1689. Various court cases have brought this particular court case to concern including the Waters-Pierce Oil Co. v. Texas in 1909. This court case defined the definition of excessive fines as so grossly excessive that it causes deprivation of property without due process of law. This amendment has also been brought up in Browning-Ferris v. Kelco as well as United States V. Bajakajian. The 8th amendment has solved many cruel punishments and it has saved many from being prosecuted unfairly.

25th amendment

“ In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.”

In 1841,John williams was the first person to suggest that the Vice President should become Acting President upon the death of the President, however John tyler was the first person to be sworn into presidency after the death of William Henry Harrison. Before it was an amendment, the issue was established first as "Tyler Precedent." This however is what lead to the new concern of how a situation of this nature, should be dealt with. In 1963, Senator Kenneth Keating of New York proposed a Constitutional amendment which enabled Congress to enact legislation providing for how to answer this question and to determine when a President is disabled. After President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, there was a huge need for a clear and efficient way to determine presidential succession, and especially dealing with the new reality of the Cold War and its frightening technologies,the Congress was forced to take immediate action. On February 19, 1964, the Senate passed the amendment, but the House passed a different version of the amendment on April 13. On July 6, after a conference committee ironed out differences between the versions, the final version of the amendment was passed by both Houses of the Congress and presented to the states for ratification. The amendment has four sections that each are significantly important and has been in action six times since it has been ratified. From having a president being shot to him undergoing a potential vatal surgery, this amendment is important because it never leaves a nation without a president. I personally keep the amendment exactly the same because from past incidents, it has served its purpose efficiently.

Vice presidents that became presidents.

John Tyler- after Harrison died
Andrew Johnson- after Lincon was assassinated.
Theodore Roosevelt- after Mckinley was assassinated.
Harry Truman- After Roosevelt died of a heart attack.
Lyndon B. Johnson-After Kennedy was shot.
Gerald R. Ford- After Nixon resigned.