Test 2 Review

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

  1. ethnocentrism- belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group
  2. demography- the study of the characteristics of populations
  3. reinforcing cleavages- divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogeneous or similar
  4. cross-cutting cleavages- divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different
  5. american exceptionalism- the view that due to circumstances of history, the constitution, and liberty, the US is different from other nations
  6. manifest destiny- a notion held by nineteenth- century Americans that the US was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific
  7. sun belt- the region of the US in the South and Southwest that has seen population growth relative to the rest of the country and which, because of its climate, has attracted retirees
  8. bible belt= the region of the states in the South with large number of strongly committed protestants who see a public role for religion
  9. rust belt- states in the midwest once known for their industrial output, which have seen factories close and have experienced relatively high unemployment
  10. urban- a densely settled territory that is often the central part of a city of metropolitan area
  11. suburban- an area that typically surrounds the central city, is often residential, and is not as densely populated
  12. rural- sparsely populated territory and small towns, often associated with farming
  13. race- a grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance
  14. ethnicity- a social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race
  15. fundamentalists- conservative Christians who, as a group, have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were especially influential in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections
  16. gender gap- the difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and of women
  17. cross domestic product (GDP)- the total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services
  18. socioeconomic status (SES)- a division of population based on occupation, income, and education

Chapter 5 Vocabulary

  1. collective bargaining- the process in which a union represents a group of employees in negotiations with the employer about wages, benefits, and workplace safety
  2. recall- a procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term
  3. faction- a term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups
  4. pluralism- a theory of gov that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups cna check the asserted power by any one group
  5. interest group- a collection of ppl who share a common interest or attitude and seek to infkuence gov for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of gov and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying
  6. social movement- a large body of ppl interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies
  7. open shop- a company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
  8. closed shop- a company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment
  9. free rider- an individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the groups\'s influence
  10. professional associations- groups of individuals who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to that profession
  11. nongovernmental organization- a nonprofit association or group operating outside government that advocates and pursue policy objectives
  12. collective action- how groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics
  13. public choice- synonymous with "collective action," specially studies how government officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negtive incentives
  14. lobbying- engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact
  15. federal register- an official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
  16. amicus curiae brief- literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization urging the Supreme Court to hear a case (or discouraging it from doing so) or, at the merits stage, to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
  17. Super PACs- independent expenditure- only PACs are known as Super PACs bc they may accept donations of any size and can endorse candidates. Their contributions and expenditures must be periodically reported to the FEC
  18. bundling- a tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle," thus increasing the PAC's influence
  19. lobbyist- a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
  20. revolving door- an employment cycle in which individuals who work for gov agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern
  21. issue network- relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and sub-committees, and the gov agencies that share a common policy concern
  22. political action committee (PAC)- the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties
  23. leadership PAC- a PAC formed by an officeholder that collects contributions from individuals and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties
  24. bipartisan campaign reform act- largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corps and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
  25. soft money- money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party- building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts
  26. independent expenditures- the supreme court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure
  27. issue advocacy-unlimited and disclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates
  28. 527 organization- a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may acccept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

  1. winner-take-all system- an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
  2. single-member district- an electoral district in which voters choose one rep or official
  3. proportional representation- an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote
  4. electoral college- the electoral system used in electing the president and VP, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates
  5. safe seat- an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted
  6. coattail effect- the boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president
  7. candidate appeal- the tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as his or her strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, and visibility
  8. national tide- the inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local issues, in an election campaign. The impact of a national tide can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who may have differentiated themselves from their party or its leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election
  9. name recognition- incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable
  10. caucus- a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform
  11. national party convention- a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and VP, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules
  12. federal election commission (FEC)- a commission created by the 1974 amendments to the fed election campaign act to administer election reform laws. It consists of six commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance info, public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits
  13. bipartisan campaign reform act- largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corps and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
  14. soft money- money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party- building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts
  15. hard money- political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term, "hard money"
  16. issue advocacy-unlimited and disclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates
  17. independent expenditures- the supreme court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure
  18. Super PACs- independent expenditure- only PACs are known as Super PACs bc they may accept donations of any size and can endorse candidates. Their contributions and expenditures must be periodically reported to the FEC