Organic Chemistry 2

Other classes of organic compounds

Functional Groups from Alkenes to Amides

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Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

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A few examples for naming

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Alkenes & Alkynes - Crash Course Chemistry #41

Polymers

Polymers are large, long-chain molecules found in nature, including cellulose in plants, starches in food, and proteins and DNA in the body also made synthetically, for example, polyethylene and polystyrene, Teflon, and nylon.

Polymers - Crash Course Chemistry #45
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Polymers can be made from recycled materials


You can identify the type of polymer used to manufacture a plastic item by looking for the recycling symbol (arrows in a triangle).

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Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene-the quintessential aromatic compound


  • benzene is written as two possible ring structures and as a hexagon with a circle drawn inside
  • benzene is found in many compounds with fragrant odors; thus the family of benzene compounds are called aromatic compounds
  • benzene contains six electrons in the ring shared equally between six carbon atoms
  • benzene is extremely stable due to the resonance between the double bonds in the

benzene ring

Aromatics and Cyclic Compounds - Crash Course Chemistry #42

Naming benzene derivatives

Aromatic compounds are named

  • with benzene as the parent chain
  • with the name of a substituent in front of the name benzene
  • with common names for some substituted compounds (see picture below)
  • When benzene has only one substituent, it is not numbered.
  • When there are two or more substituents, the ring is numbered to give the substituents the lowest possible numbers.
  • When a common name such as phenol is used with a second substituent, the –OH in phenol is on the number one carbon.

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Alcohols, phenols, and ethers

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Alcohols, phenols, and ethers

An alcohol contains a hydroxyl (–OH) group which is bonded to the hydrocarbon chain of an alkane.

A phenol contains a hydroxyl (–OH) group which is bonded to a benzene ring.

Ethers have two carbon atoms attached to the oxygen atom.

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Naming Alcohols

Alcohols are named with an IUPAC name that replaces the e in alkane name with ol

as simple alcohols using the name of the alkyl group of the corresponding alkane followed by alcohol such as CH4 methane CH3─OH methanol (methyl alcohol)



Alcohols with one or two carbons do not require a number for the hydroxyl group.

CH3—CH2—OH ethanol, (ethyl alcohol)


For alcohols with three or more carbon atoms, the chain is numbered to give the
–OH group the lowest number. For example, CH3─CH2—CH2—CH2—OH

1−butanol, (butyl alcohol)

Name ethers by the alkyl groups attached to either side of the middle oxygen atom (alphabetically)

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Aldehydes and Ketones

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Aldehydes and ketones can be made from alcohols (but not tertiary alcohols)

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Primary alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes or ketones depending on conditions. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones only

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Some examples of aldehydes and ketones

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Aldehydes and Ketones: Naming + Properties

Carboxylic acids and esters

Naming carboxylic acids and esters

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Carboxylic Acids: Naming + Properties

Amines and amides

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Amines can be primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on the number of H atoms replaced in ammonia

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Aromatic amines are named as derivatives of aniline

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Naming amines-examples

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Alkaloids are complex biological amines

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Oxycontin-a synthesized prescription drug which is also an alkaloid

Oxycontin has physiological effects similar to heroin. It is strongly addictive and one of the most abused drugs.
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Amides are made from carboxylic acids and amines

This reaction is the same type as esterification: a hydrolysis reaction.
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Some amide examples

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What can you do to help your understanding?

Chemistry is a subject that must be practiced everyday if possible. Work through the lecture examples stopping the video clips and then restarting to check yourself. Take advantage of the practice in Mastering Chemistry to give you the practice you need to be successful. DO NOT PROCRASTINATE! Check announcements on Blackboard (Bishop State) or Sakai (USA) everyday. Keep a printed copy of the most recent course calendar (included in syllabus) next to your work area. Email me with questions!!