Elizabeth I of England

Queen of Great Britain, Good Queen Bless, The Virgin Queen

Life/Fun Facts

Birth: September 7th, 15433 in Greenwich, England

Death: March 24th, 1603 in Surrey, England

Dates of Reign: November 1558 - 1403

Marriage: decided not to marry

Family

Approach to Government

  • Elizabeth I was a diplomat.
  • She wanted to bring stability to the nation caused by political and religious disagreement.
  • She also wanted to contribute to the strong growth of the international trading interests of England.

Policies

Diplomat


  • Elizabeth I was the supreme governor of the Church of England.
  • In 1559, she passed the First Parliament because the question of the church's nature needed to be settled.

Parliament (July 1st):

  • It declared Elizabeth I and Mary Tudor illegitimate
  • It said the issue should pass to Jane Seymour, Henry VIII's third wife.
  • It symbolized strong victory of the Puritans.

Spanish Armada

last straw: Mary Tudor's death

  • In July 1558, a navy fleet sailed to England under the declaration of Phillip II for war.
  • Chaos begun, and the Spanish were chased by the English to the northern British Isles.
  • Sea storms killed many during the chase.
  • The English were constantly winning the battle.
  • The entire war lasted fifteen years. Elizabeth I's death seemed to end the Spanish Armada.

Sir Francis Drake

  • Sir Francis Drake "co-led" the English Spanish Armada navy along with Martin Frobisher and Hawkins under the command of Lord Charles Howard of Effingham. The three "sidekicks" were known as the "sea dogs."
  • He aimed for the Spanish Armada to last nine days.
  • He took personal action in April 1587 in Cadiz when he captured a part of the enemy, even though this action only slightly affected the war.
  • His life after the Spanish Armada was uneventful. He joined the Parliament.

Compromise Between Protestants & Catholics

Charges against the Roman Catholic Church appeared in Europe.

  • Martin Luther's reform movement was growing in Germnay.
  • Huldrych Zwingli, a preist from Switzerland, challenged the law that priests could not marry.
  • Zwingli also called a seperation of state and church.

Protestant Activity & Calvinism

  • John Calvin, a reformer from France, started "predestination," or a belief where an elite group of people were decided to go to Heaven before birth in Geneva.
  • Calvin's followers helped him spread his religion throughout Europe, especially in France, where Calvinists were known as Huguenots, and England, where Puritanism sprouted.


Radical Protestantism was a way for peasants and nobles to abandon the laws and monarchs of the Roman Catholic Church.

Achievements

  • Elizabeth I traded with and raided Spanish America.
  • She also increased the number of shipbuilding seafarers from 15,000 to 50,000 during the war with Spain.
  • Additionally, she exported raw wool from London to Antwerp, which made up at least ninety percent of English trade.

England During the 1500s

When Elizabeth I was in reign, this is what her country was like. It was much different than what it is in modern day.