Organ Donation

How can organ donation/transplants be beneficial/dangerous?

Background Information

  • The National Transplant Act of 1984 prohibited the use of organs to be "bought, sold, swapped or traded for any kinds of monetary gains."
  • Over 100,000 Americans have kidney or liver disease
  • Approximately 73,000 people sit on the waiting list for a kidney—18 of them will die by tomorrow and 6,000 more patients join the list every year.
  • Parts of the living body are bought and sold every day by consenting American adults
Big image
Big image

Benefits


  • Approximately 73,000 people sit on the waiting list for a kidney—18 of them will die by tomorrow and 6,000 more patients join the list every year
  • In 2007, there was 43,606 females and 31,454 males waiting for kidney transplants
  • People are paid for donating plasma, sperm and ova, so why should we consider kidneys differently? Plasma, sperm and ova replenish themselves, and can be obtained by minimally invasive means
  • What does this mean? With more organ donations, most or all could have been saved
Big image

Living Recipitents

Darrel Neal was diagnosed with end stage renal disease. That means that his kidneys no longer worked. He was told that he would not survive unless he had a transplant. In 2009, he was put on the transplant list. He waited to see if a family member of friend would step up, but no one did. Darrel's wife began to get desperate. She contacted Dr. Phil to let him know that "Darrell, and thousands others like him, could have a second chance at life if more people would become living kidney donors" Dr. Phil answered her plea, and invited Darrel to talk on his show to say that "life on dialysis is no life at all." A woman in Idaho could not believe that no one had given Darrel a kidney yet, so she set out to save his life. This woman's name was Shannon Martin. “It felt unbelievable to know that someone who didn’t know me would give me such a gift,” says Darrell. “It was like I hit the lottery.”

Dangers

  • Chipped teeth or sore throat from insertion of breathing tube
  • Allergic reaction to medications used to put you to sleep
  • Risk of infection from the insertion of I.V. lines
  • Risk of a pneumothorax (collapse of the lung) from the insertion of a large I.V. line (used for giving fluids)
  • The possibility of requiring mechanical ventilation (a breathing machine or respirator) after surgery
  • Risk of death due to problems with the heart or lungs
  • Risk of rejection of the transplanted organ
  • Increased risk of infection due to the immunosuppressant medications
  • Any of the side effects of the immunosuppressant medications as previously discussed
  • Very small risk for acquiring AIDS, Hepatitis B, other viruses, or cancer from the donor organ
  • Potential for a blood transfusion due to blood loss in the operating room and related risk for the transmission of infectious diseases from a blood donor. Blood donors are screened very carefully, but there may be a rare case when a disease may be undetectable and may be passed to the recipient
Big image

Conclusion

I believe that organ donation/ transplant is ethical as long as it is completely voluntary on the doner's side of the equation. If the transplant is carried out as a threat, blackmail, or any other form of deceitful persuasion, it is completely against all ethical standards. Some people might say that it is that person's choice to give into the blackmail, but really they are under so much pressure, they just snap and give in. Organ donation/ transplantation saves live. Our dead bodies, if in good condition, can save up to eight lives. So if everyone gives up their bodies for transplant after they die, everyone waiting on that list of almost 122,403 people in America who need a kidney transplant. So, if the organ donation/ transplantation is completely voluntary, it is ethical because it saves live.

Bibliography

Baruch, Jay. "Allowing Prisoners to Donate Organs Is Unethical." Organ Donation. Ed. Laura Egendorf. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from "Prisoners and Organ Donation."Medicine and Health Rhode Island 88 (Dec. 2005): 437-438. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.

Cherry, Mark. "The Regulated Sale of Organs for Transplant Is Ethical." Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Viqi Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from "Put Donor Organs on the Open Market." New Scientist (13 Aug. 2005). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 11 Dec. 2015.

"Episode 518: Your Organs, Please." NPR: Economy 28 Oct. 2015. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.

Graph: U.S. Waiting List Candidates by Organ and Gender." Biomedical Ethics. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 11 Dec. 2015

Hollander, Catherine. "What's the Fairest Way to Dispense Donated Organs?" National Journal 25 July 2013. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.

"Military Hopes to Learn from Chimp Attack Victim." AP Video News 2015. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 8 Dec. 2015

Monti, Jennifer. "The Sale of Human Organs Should Be Allowed." Is Selling Body Parts Ethical? Ed. Christine Watkins. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from "The Case for Compensating Live Organ Donors." Competitive Enterprise Institute [CEI]. 2009. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Parrish, Kevin. Darrell Neal. Digital image. Organ and Tissue Donation Blog. N.p., 7 Aug. 2012. Web. 15 Dec. 2015.

"Replacing Body Parts." NOVA 2011. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 8 Dec. 2015.

Saberi, Debra Budiani, and Deborah M. Golden. "The Sale of Human Organs Is Unethical." Is Selling Body Parts Ethical? Ed. Christine Watkins. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from "Advancing Organ Donation Without Commercialization: Maintaining the Integrity of the National Organ Transplant Act." 2009. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 9 Dec. 2015.

Various. Darrell Neal. Digital image. Livingdonationcalifornia.org. Living Donation California, 2015. Web. 15 Dec. 2015.

Various. "Potential Risks of Transplant Surgery." Http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/. University of California, Davis, Health System, 2015. Web. 10 Dec. 2015.