Cell Organelles

By: Kemi Odumosu

Plasma or Cell Membrane

Structure:

Double layer of phospholipids that surround a cell

Function:

Holds in fluids and organelles

Present in:

Both animal and plant cells

Cell Wall

Structure:

Located on the outside of the cell, made of phospholipids

Function:

Protection of the cell, like a shield or wall

Present in:

Plant cells

Cytoplasm

Structure:

Cytosol (liquid) and organelles

Function:

Holds cells and organelles

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Nucleus

Structure:

A spherical organelle enclosed in a membrane

Function:

Control center of the cell, holds DNA

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Nuclear Membrane

Structure:

Double lipid bilayer membrane in cytosol, usually surrounded by the ER

Function:

Protect the nucleus

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Nucleolus

Structure:

Made of proteins and RNA, largest structure in a nucleus

Function:

Produces ribosomes

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Centrioles

Structure:

A ring of 9 groups of microtubes

Function:

Produces spindle fibers for mitosis (cell reproduction)

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

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Chromatin

Structure:

Located in the nucleus, Made of (stringy) DNA, proteins, and RNA

Function:

Package DNA smaller, Reinforce the DNA for mitosis, Prevent DNA damage, Control genes and DNA replication

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Mitosis Centrioles

Ribosomes

Structure:

Pockets of DNA and proteins

Function:

Produce proteins

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

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Golgi Apparatus

Structure:

Looks like stacks of water balloon pancakes

Function:

Packages proteins into vesicles

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure:

Branches off from the outer membrane and zigzags through the cytoplasm

Function:

Transports material throughout cell

Smooth ER-Transition area where chemicals (like proteins) manufactured in the cell are stored until transport

Rough ER-Gets its name from the ribosomes, which aid in protein synthesis

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Mitochondria

Structure:

Shaped like a kidney bean, about the size of bacteria

Function:

"Powerhouse" of the cell, Produces ATP

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

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Chloroplast

Structure:

Green, surrounded by inner and outer membrane

Function:

Conduct photosynthesis

Present in:

Plant cells

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Lysosomes

Structure:

Contains enzymes, found in cytoplasm

Function:

Produces enzymes to help discard cellular waste

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

Peroxisomes

Structure:

Membrane-bound pockets of oxidative enzymes

Function:

Converts fatty acids to sugar

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells

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Vacuole

Structure:

Membrane-bound sac in the cytoplasm

Function:

Stores food, nutrients, water, ions, waste products, ect.

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells (but larger in plants)

Cytoskeleton

Structure:

Made of special protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm

Function:

Helps maintain cell shape and structure

Present in:

Both plant and animal cells