IPS Exam Study Guide

Samantha Printz

Safety


  • For Every Lab
  • Goggles kept over eyes until Mr. Leeds says to put them away (even if finished)
  • Report ALL accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately
  • Use common sense
  • In Case of Emergency
  • Nurse- 2828
  • Safety Equipment in Classroom
  • fire extinguisher
  • Fire blanket
  • Eye wash/shower
  • Chemicals
  • never taste
  • always waft liquids
  • never waft solids/powders
  • avoid touching
  • always wash hands after lab
  • if touch skin: flush skin with water for 1 minute and notify Mr. Leeds
  • Glass
  • hot and cold glass look the same
  • never used chipped or broken glass
  • tell Mr. Leeds if broken and through away in glass trash
  • never use force to insert or remove glass
  • Alcohol Burners
  • roll sleeves
  • put up hair
  • never walk away from lit burner
  • never point open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else
  • do not look down into a test tube/beaker while being heated
  • make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done
  • End of Experiment
  • clean-up area and materials completely!!!
  • make sure burner is out
  • keep goggles on until mr leeds says to put away


Reaction in A Bag Lab

Solid A- calcium chloride

- acidic

- used for canned veggies, flavor pickles, and electrolyte in sports drinks

Solid B- Sodium bicarbonate

- non acidic

- used for baking, toothpaste, and cleaners

Red Liquid- phenol red

- used as ph indicator

- 0-14

- measures acidity

- 0-6 is acid

- 7 is neutral

- 8-14 is alkaline

- below 7 turns yellow

- above 9 turns pink

Endothermic- cold

Exothermic- hot

Experimental Error

- hole in bag- you would not know there is a gas being produced



Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Vocabulary


Chapter 1 Vocabulary from E-Learning

Observation- information obtained by the senses- often by direct measurement.

Inference- a conclusion based upon known observations.

Hypothesis- A proposed solution to a scientific problem.

Control Group- the group that is the standard for comparison in any experiment.

Experimental Group- the group receiving the variable being tested. Control Factors- the variables that are held constant. They are the same

for both the control group and the experimental group.

Indicator- a substance used to show the presence of another substance.

Volume- the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases.

Volume Displacement Technique- quick and easy way to determine the volume of a solid or gas.

Mass- the amount of matter in a substance (true of solids, liquids, and gases)

Meniscus- the curved portion of a liquid when in a container. Must read the bottom of the meniscus- at eye level- for proper measurement.


Control group/factor

Experimental group/factor

Indicator

Volume formula- lxwxh

Volume unit of measurement- cm3

Length unit of measurement- meter (m)

1mL=1cm3

Beqa- ancient standard mass used in Egypt

Mass unit of measurement- grams (g)

1kg= 2.2 lbs

∆M- change in mass

Sensitivity of Balance- the lightest mass that you can expect the balance to detect

Hydrotropic- absorbs water

Heating Baking Soda Lab

Experimental Errors:

  • Rubber tubing may be broken...you would not see the gas forming from the heated baking soda because it would go into the air instead of the bottle.
  • The stirring rod may be contaminated from the class before...you would not see as much of a difference between the non-heated and the heated baking sodas with the iced tea.
Extra Question:

Is the amount of condensation that forms at the top of the heated test tube more or less than the amount of baking soda being heated?

Less condensation because condensation is coming from the baking soda and you cannot have more than the original.


Balance Notes


  • check that pan is clean and dry
  • zero balance before each massing
  • never switch pans
  • hold by red bar only



Volume Notes

  • unit of measurement- cm3
  • volume- l x w x h (a x b x c)
  • standard unit of length- meter (m)
  • 1 cm= 0.1 m
  • 100cm= 1m
  • unit cube- a small cube 1cm on each edge
  • Volume of Liquids- use graduated cylinder to measure volume
  • Volume of Liquids- always check intervals or scale
  • Volume of Liquids- units- milliliters (mL) or cm3
  • 1mL= 1cm3
  • Volume of Liquids- read bottom of meniscus


Box Questions

  • Baking soda used in baking because it produces a gas which helps dough/batter rise
  • As the height/depth of a cone increases, the surface decreases
  • making graduated cylinder narrow and tall its easier to read because the lines are further apart


1.4 Displacement of Water

Experimental Errors:
  • Sand sticks to side of cylinder
  • Crack in the funnel
  • Pouring water into sand
  • Read level of sand and not the water
Extra Question:

Why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of sand? (what was the purpose?)

To show that it doesn't matter the amount of dry sand that you use, the percentage of air space is always the same. (about 40%)

Chart

Volume of Dry Sand

Volume of Water

Volume of Sand and Water

Volume of Sand Alone- Volume of sand and water minus Volume of water

Volume of Air Space- Volume of dry sand minus volume of sand alone

Fraction of sand that is air- Volume of air space divided by volume of dry sand

Percent of Sand that is Air- fraction of sand that is air times 100



1.8 The Sensitivity of a Balance

Experimental Errors:
  • Pencil marks are on the square...this adds mass
  • Cutting groups of paper unevenly
  • Balance not zeroed
  • Could have read the balance wrong

Sensitivity of Balance- the lightest mass that you can expect the balance to detect


Chapter 2

2.1 Mass of Dissolved Salt

Experimental Errors:

  • Cap not on tight enough then water spills out
  • Cleaning the ban between Mi and Mf
  • Salt spills when pouring into bottle
  • Not shaking long enough
  • Cap not dry
  • Remove cap before Mf
  • Outside of bottle is wet

Mi- mass initial

Mf- mass final



2.4 Mass of Ice and Water

Experimental Errors:
  • not wiping off condensation on outside
  • shaking bottle
  • ice isn't fully melted
  • bottle (outside) gets wet from ice
  • not drying bottle cap
  • removed cap before Mf

Outlier- far away from the rest of the data


2.5 The Mass of Copper and Sulfur

Experimental Errors:
  • Rubber sheet isn't on tight
  • Hole in the rubber sheet
  • Shaking test tube
  • Clean pan between massinngs

Melting point of copper- 1000 degrees Celsius

2.6 Mass of a Gas

Experimental Errors:
  • Inside of cap is wet
  • Cap is not sealed quickly and tightly
  • Outside of bottle is wet during Mi
  • Water splashes when gas is released

Mass of the gas: MF-mass after

Alka-Seltzer: antacid (stops acid) and pain reliever (made up of aspirin, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate)


Conservation of Mass Notes

Law of Conservation of Mass: in a closed system mass will remain constant, regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system

Closed System: a space where nothing can leave or enter

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Property of an object: does not tell you what it is made out of

Property of a substance: this helps you to identify what the object is made out of

3.2 Mass and Volume

Experimental Errors:
  • don't dry cylinders after taking volume
  • switched up the cylinders and took measurement twice
  • not enough water in graduated cylinder for displacement of water
  • water splashes out of graduated cylinders

Density= mass/volume

Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass (regardless of their shape)

The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles

Objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will NOT have the same mass

3.5 Density of Solids

Experimental Errors:
  • Mis up the cubes
  • Measuring the same side of the cube/slab twice
  • Measure from the end of the ruler and not the zero mark...volume decreases...density increases
  • Measure volume of rock before mass...water will be on the rock and add mass

Why do lab groups get different density calculations for their rocks?

  • All have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together (different substances= different densities)



3.6 The Density of a Liquid

Experimental Errors:
  • Contaminated cylinder (wet on inside)
  • Dry the cylinder after it's massed(<- empty)
  • liquid sticks to inside walls of cylinder which means increase in mass which means increase in density

Epsom salt- Magnesium sulfate


3.7 The Density of a Gas

Experimental Errors:
  • Hand not sealed on bottle...water leaks...volume increases...density decreases
  • Water in pan during mass final...mass decreases...density decreases
  • Hole in tubing...volume decreases...density increases
  • Stopper not on tight...volume decreases...density increases
  • Too slow putting tablet in...volume decreases...density increases
  • Remove stopper before tubing...volume increases...density decreases

The gas is carbon dioxide