IPS Study Guide

By Caroline O'Hara

LAB SAFETY

For Every Lab:


Goggles must be kept OVER YOUR EYES until Mr. Leeds says to put them away

**even if you are already finished and cleaned up**

Report ALL accidents/ spills to Mr. Leeds immediately

Try your best to use common sense


In Case of Emergency:

Nurse: extension: 2828


Safety Equipment in Classroom:

Fire extinguisher

Fire blanket

Eye wash/shower


Chemicals:

Never taste chemicals (even if they look yummy!)

Always WAFT liquids to detect odor

NEVER WAFT SOLIDS/POWDERS!

Avoid touching chemicals

Always wash hands with soap and water after lab

If chemicals touch skin: flush skin with water for 1 minute AND notify Mr. Leeds


Glass:

Hot glass and cold glass look the same

Never use a chipped or broken glass

-tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash

Never use force to remove or insert glass


Alcohol Burners:

Roll up sleeves, put UP long hair, NOT just pull back (or you cannot do lab)

Never walk away from lit burner

Never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else

Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated

Make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done


End of Experiment:

CLEAN-UP AREA & MATERIALS COMPLETELY!!!!!! (or you LOSE points)

Make certain that burner is out if one was used

Keeps goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away


REACTION IN A BAG POST LAB

Red Liquid

  • Phenol Red
  • Used as a ph indicator
  • Below 7 turns yellow
  • Above 8 turns pink

Ph Scale

  • Measures acidity
  • Goes from 0-14
  • 0-7 = acid
  • 7-14 = alkaline
  • 7 = neutral
  • Lemon juice is 1.5
  • Tums are 10


Two Solids

Solid A: Calcium Chloride (calcium & chlorine)



  • Acidic
  • Hydrotropic- it absorbs (attracted to) water
  • Uses:
-canned veggies- keeps from getting mushy
- Electrolyte in sports drinks


- Flavors pickles (salty flavor)


Solid B: Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda)



  • Not acidic
  • Uses: Baking, toothpaste, laundry detergent


Experimental Errors

  • Hole in plastic bag- would not see gas being produced by the reaction


HEATING BAKING SODA POST LAB

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Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

Blue Dot Questions

  1. What do you observe at the bottom of the test tube? The baking soda is turning brown
  2. What do you observe near the top of the test tube? There is condensation at the top of the test tube
  3. What do you observe in the inverted bottle? The water in the bottle is going down
  4. Where do you think the gas came from? The gas came from the baking soda
  5. Where did the droplets on the test tube come from? The droplets on the test tube came from the baking soda when heated
  6. Describe the color of the liquid in each test tube. A (not heated): Clear, no foam at the top, orangey-yellow color, baking soda doesn't dissolve. B (heated): Cloudy, foam at the top, orangey-brown color, baking soda dissolves
  7. Are the two white powders the same substance? What is your evidence? The two white powders are not the same substance, because when you put the tea in both beakers, they have a different outcome


Box Questions # 1-2 (textbook page 5)

1. Why do you think baking soda is used in baking? Baking soda is used in baking, because when baking soda is heated, it releases gas, which makes the batter or dough rise


2. List some tools that you have used

a. To extend your vision to see distant objects: glasses

b. To extend your vision to see very small objects: magnifying glass

c. To tell how hot something is: thermometer

1.2 VOLUME

Volume

  • Unit of measurement
  • Volume= length x width x height (a x b x c)
  • Standard unit of measurement: meter (m)
  • 1 centimeter (1cm)= .01 meters
  • 100 centimeters= 1 meter


Unit Cube

  • A small cube 1 cm on each edge
  • 1 cubic centimeter (1cm3)


Volume of Liquds

  • Use a graduted cylinder to measure volume
  • Always check the intervals or scale
  • Units= milliliters (mL) or cm3
  • 1mL= 1 cm3


Box Questions # 3-8 (page 8)

3. How many cubic centimeters of water are required to fill a graduated cylinder to the 50.0-mL mark? 50 cm3

4. Rectangular box A has a greater volume than rectangular box B but the length of box A is less than the length of box B. How is this possible? Box A has a greater width than box B

5. Adding a stone to a graduated cylinder containing 25.0 cm3 of water raises to the water level in the cylinder to the 32.0-cm3 mark. What is the volume of the stone? 7.0 cm3 (rock in water known as displacement)

6. A student has a large number of cubes that measure 1 cm along each edge. (If you find it helpful, use a drawing or a set of cubes to answer the following questions)

a. How many cubes will be needed to build a cube that measures 2 cm along each edge? 8 cubes

b. How many cubes will be needed to build a cube that measures 3 cm along each edge? 27 cubes

c. What is the volume, in cubic centimeters, of each of the cubes in (a) and (b)? 8 cm3 and 27 cm3

7. One rectangular box is 30 cm long, 15 cm wide, and 10 cm deep. A second rectangular box is 25 cm long, 16 cm wide and 15 cm deep. Which box has the larger volume? The second rectangular box has a greater volume

8. Figure A (page 8) shows a cone-shaped graduate used for measuring the volume of liquids. Why are the divisions not equally spaced? They are not evenly spaced because the circumference gets larger the higher you go (volume= surface x depth) (height) (as the surface increases, the depth decreases

SINGLE PAN BALANCE

Notes

  1. Check that the pan is clean and dry
  2. Always "zero" balance the scale

- Push all riders to zero (left)

- Use adjustment knob if needed

3. Never switch pans

4. Pick up balance by red bar only

5. Don't zero balance when done


Box Questions # 9-13 (pages 11-12)

9. a. Estimate the positions of arrows I and II in Figure B (a) (page 11) to the nearest 0.1 cm. Can you estimate their positions to 0.01 cm? 1.2, 3.8

b. Estimate the positions of arrows III, IV, and V in Figure B (b) (page 11) to the nearest 0.001 cm? 1.65, 2.51, 4.50

c. Why should you report the positions of the arrows in part (b) to the nearest 0.01 cm and not to the nearest 0.1 cm? It will be more accurate

10. What part of cubic centimeter do the smallest divisions on each of the graduated cylinder in Figure C (page 11) represent? Express your answer as a decimal. (a) 0.1, (b) 0.2

11. What is the level o the liquid in Figure D(a) (page 12) to the nearest half division? What is the level in Figure D(b) (page 12) to the nearest half division? 4.0 cm3, 1.30 cm3

12. Three students reported the length of a pencil to be 12 cm, 12.0 cm, and 12.00 cm. Do all three readings contain the same information? 11.5-12.4, 11.95- 12.04, 11.995-12.004

13. What advantage is there to making graduated cylinders narrow and tall rather than sort and wide? The lines are further apart because there is more depth due to lack of surface, which makes it easier to read


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MEASUREMENT LAB

Volume

What are the divisions on the following graduated cylinders:


  • 10 mL: 0.2 mL
  • 25 mL: 0.5 mL
  • 50 mL: 1 mL
  • 100 mL: 1 mL


Using the 10 mL cylinder measure out 7 mL

Using the 25 mL cylinder measure out 14 mL

Using the 50 mL cylinder measure out 12.5 mL

Using the 100 mL cylinder measure out 15 mL

Length

Measure the length of the following lines (be as accurate as possible):



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Mass

Mass the following objects in your bin (be as accurate as possible)


  • Nickel: 4.950 g
  • Binder Clip: 8.690 g
  • Big Stopper: 12.140 g
  • Small Stopper: 8.030 g