Cardiovascular System

Characteristics of Blood

Blood is a constantly circulating fluid providing the body with nutrition, oxygen, and waste removal. Blood is mostly liquid, with numerous cells and proteins suspended in it, making blood "thicker" than pure water. The average person has about 5 liters (more than a gallon) of blood.

How blood is made and where

Bone marrow that actively produces blood cells is called red marrow, and bone marrow that no longer produces blood cells is called yellow marrow. All blood cells come from the same kind of stem cell, which has the potential to turn into any kind of blood cell.


  • Blood is 55% plasma.
  • Parts of plasma that helps body homeostasis

Water-Provides fluid environment

Proteins-Create osmotic pressure, aid clotting, and help buffer blood

Nutrients-Required for cellular metabolism

Wastes-Produced by cellular metabolism

Salts-Aid metabolic activity and help buffer blood

Hormones-Chemical messengers

  • Plasma is a straw-colored, clear liquid that is 90 percent water, and it is an essential ingredient for human survival.
  • Plasma proteins are proteins found in the blood plasma, the clear, protein-rich fluid which is left behind when platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells are removed from the blood.
  • Fibrinogen- helps clotting.
  • Globulin-Part of the immune system.
  • Blood serum is plasma without the clotting factors.
  • Prothrombin time is the time it takes for blood to clot.

Red Blood Cells

  • 45% of blood is red blood cells.
  • To maintain homeostasis red blood cells transport oxygen and hydrogen ions.
  • a biconcave disc that is round and flat, sort of like a shallow bowl.
  • Holds hemoglobin a molecule specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it.
  • Oxyhemoglobin is when the hemoglobin is attached to oxygen.
  • Carbaminohemoglobin is a compound of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin, which is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood.
  • Erythrocyte is another name for Red Blood Cell.

White Blood Cells

  • Blood is 4% White Blood Cells.
  • White blood cells have a nucleus.
  • To maintain homeostasis white blood cells fight infection.
  • White blood is made up of

Neutrophils - 58 percent

Eosinophils - 2 percent

Basophils - 1 percent

Bands - 3 percent

Monocytes - 4 percent

Lymphocytes - 4 percent

  • They are round and have a rough texture.
  • White blood cells are also called leukocytes.
  • Neutrophils are white blood cells that have nodes in them they are the most common. They are purple and the nucleus has 3 or more lobes.
  • Eosinophils attack parasites. They are red/orange with a bilobed nucleus.
  • Basophils produce histamine and heparin. dark purple with a bilobed nucleus.
  • Lymphocytes and monocytes are an important cell class in the immune system that produces antibodies to attack infected and cancerous cells, and is responsible for rejecting foreign tissue.
  • Macrophage: A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Macrophages are key players in the immune response to foreign invaders of the body, such as infectious microorganisms. Largest leukocyte.
  • Granulocyte: A type of white blood cell that is filled with microscopic granules, little sacs containing enzymes that digest microorganisms.
  • white blood cells with no cytoplasmic granules, including lymphocytes and monocytes.


  • Platelets are only 1% of blood.
  • Platelets look like spikey ovals.
  • To maintain homeostasis platelets assist blood clotting.
  • Platelets are actually fragments of the cells in bone marrow, called megakaryocytes. Stimulated by the hormone thrombopoietin, platelets break off the megakaryocytes and enter the blood stream, where they circulate for about 10 days before ending their short lives in the spleen.
  • Prothrombin: A plasma protein needed for the clotting process.

  • Thrombocytes play a big roll in blood clotting.

  • Thrombin a proteolytic enzyme that is formed from prothrombin and facilitates the clotting of blood by catalyzing conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

  • Fibrinogen is a protein produced by the liver. This protein helps stop bleeding by helping blood clots to form.

  • Fibrin is an insoluble protein that is essential to clotting of blood, formed from fibrinogen by action of thrombin.

  • Coagulation is the means by which we stop bleeding and form blood clots after injury to blood vessels.

  • Thrombus is a stationary blood clot along the wall of a blood vessel, frequently causing vascular obstruction.
  • Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
  • Embolus is a dislodged or floating clot.
  • An embolism is an obstruction in a blood vessel due to a blood clot or other foreign matter that gets stuck while traveling through the bloodstream.

Blood Clotting Process (Hemostasis)