The Arts and Life in Europe
by Maggie O'Rourke
Music: General Style
The style of 18th century music was largely dictated and dominated by the work of Bach and Handel, as discussed below. As the two were both interested in Italian music, they both incorporated elements of it into their work and therefore shaped the style of the century to be more Italian.
Simultaneously, however, Germany was forging its own tradition of music. Cantatas and other more chorale-based arrangements became popular. This arguably reflected German society's love of order, in that chorales are both complex and neatly organized— interesting to listen to but not overly thrilling or suspenseful.
Toccata And Fugue In D Minor, BWV 569 by sterl0601
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Art: Baroque Style
The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
The Three Crosses (etching)
Apollo Attended by the Nymphs
Gardens of Versailles
Art: Rococo Style
Life of the Peasants
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- "The J.S. Bach Home Page." The J.S. Bach Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "A Biographical Introduction." GFHandel.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Handel: His 10 Best Pieces of Music - as Chosen by Classic FM Presenters." Classic FM. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- Bio.com. "Wolfgang Mozart." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Top Ten Works by Mozart." Sinfini Music. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Baroque." Baroque. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "18th-Century France Rococo." 18th-Century France: The Rococo and Watteau. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Baroque Composers Overview, Individual Biographies." Baroque Composers Overview, Individual Biographies. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- Fragonard, Jean Honore. The Stolen Kiss. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- Sterl0601. Toccata and Fugue in D MInor. N.d. Soundcloud. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Elizabeth Aaker." Community among 18th Century French Peasantry. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Types of Food in 18th Century England." Types of Food in 18th Century England. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "UNIT IV: The Old Regime." Mr. Freebird's History Village. Freebird, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Handel: Messiah, Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exhalted (Sir Colin Davis, Mark Padmore, LSO)." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
- "Beginning of 'Die Zauberfloete'" YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
1800's (art styles)
Snow Storm: Steamboat off a Harbor by J.M.W. Turner (pictured above) is an example of Romantic art. Turner showcased the power and beauty of nature through his bold colors and broad brushstrokes.
Several movements below took place during or in addition to the Romantic movement, which spanned over so many years.
Realism (mid 1800's)
The Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet (pictured above) is a great example of how realist art was used to portray people's struggles. Instead of painting beautiful or fantastical things, he painted simple pictures of a man and boy breaking stones, in plain clothing and a plain scene.
Mathew B. Brady took photographs of the American Civil War, one of which is pictured above. He presented vivid records of the brutality of war.
Claude Monet's Bridge over a Pond of Water Lillies (pictured above) shows how his lack of mixed colors gave a more blurry image.
Georges Seurat's painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, done in a pointillist style, is pictured above.
- Wikipedia. "Snow Storm." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
- Wikipedia. "The Stone Breakers." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
- Brady, Mathew B. "Ruins of Richmond, VA." Fold3. Fold3, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
- Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Claude Monet." The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
- Wikipedia. "Georges Seurat." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
Above is a piece entitled Figures by Georges Braque, one of the first cubist pioneers. The piece is clearly taking after cubism because of its conflicting planes, shapes, and detailed subjects. Looking at the painting, one can see seemingly infinite shapes and designs within the work, though the artist probably intended to show two people. Its complexity and angularity make it a perfect example of cubism.
Squares with Concentric Circles by Vasily Kandinsky, shown below, clearly shows the essence of abstract art. Its simple but colorful pattern, and its lack of a clear subject, demonstrate what most abstract art pieces strove to be.
Max Ernst's Temptation of St. Anthony is an obvious example of dada-style art. The painting's vulgar, frightening creatures and chaotic atmosphere reflect the ideals of dadaists, and bring about the desired reaction of fear or disgust.
Salvador Dali is one of most famous surreal artists. His Persistence of Memory, featuring several melting clocks, shows the inner-workings of our subconscious. Specifically, it discusses how we retain memories.
Frank Lloyd Wright used Bauhaus values to construct his buildings. One of his most famous constructions, entitled Fallingwater, uses the natural waterfall to enhance the building's design and function. The result is a completely unique and almost organic design that looks sleek, modern, and simple.
One talented jazz trumpeter Louis Armstrong was extremely popular, and is still well known today.