Acquiring Natuarl Resources

The different methods of acquiring natuarl resources

What's the difference between underground mining and surface mining?

Main Difference:

■ Surface mining is the process of mining the earth's surface directly and then obtaining the ore and minerals. The whole process is done on the surface of the earth.

■ Underground mining is done with a tunnel under the surface of the earth, and it will not happen on the earth's surface.

Minerals Extracted:

■ Surface mining can get coal, copper and precious metals such as gold.

■ Underground mining can get gold, platinum, zinc, lead, and coal.

Surface mining

Surface mining is a move the covering of the orebody, mineral process, mineral process directly from the surface of the earth. But it is easy to cause harm of geological disasters, water pollution, solid waste pollution, air pollution and water pollution etc.

Effect of surface mining on the environment:

  • Water pollution is due to direct damage to a large number of opencast mining land caused serious soil erosion; vegetation is destroyed, large tracts of land desertification.The geological disaster is affected mountain, digging the ground slope and debris flow caused by geological disasters, landslides and landslide etc.
  • Solid waste pollution is because many mines dumped solid discharges, and then cause the river blockage.
  • Air pollution because of open-pit production due to the extensive use of large mechanical equipment and blasting, produce toxic gases and radioactive aerosols in the air. For example H2S, SO2, CO, NO2, etc.
  • The destruction of water environment system is because of the mining waste residue and tailings in the atmosphere, and the oxidation of the sulfide precipitation has become acid rain.

produce of Surface mining

Underground mining

Underground mining (hard rock) is used to mining hard minerals, mainly containing a metal, such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, as well as the use of the same technique for gem mining, such as diamond.

Underground mining (soft rock) is a type of underground mining techniques, used to extract coal , oil shale , potash and other minerals.

Effect of underground mining on the environment

  • Water pollution: improper disposal or earthwork piling unreasonable blocking runoff, blocking the river.
  • Air pollution: the process of mining the ore dust, dust, lead to the decline in air quality.
  • Land impact: surface subsidence caused by mining, destruction of buildings, the impact of agricultural production.

produce of underground mining

Highwall mining

Highwall mining is another form of surface mining. That evolved from auger mining. In Highwall mining, the coal seam is penetrated by a continuous miner propelled by a hydraulic Pushbeam Transfer Mechanism.

Effect of surface mining on the environment:

(is same to Surface mining)

  • Water pollution is due to direct damage to a large number of opencast mining land caused serious soil erosion; vegetation is destroyed, large tracts of land desertification.The geological disaster is affected mountain, digging the ground slope and debris flow caused by geological disasters, landslides and landslide etc.
  • Solid waste pollution is because many mines dumped solid discharges, and then cause the river blockage.
  • Air pollution because of open-pit production due to the extensive use of large mechanical equipment and blasting, produce toxic gases and radioactive aerosols in the air. For example H2S, SO2, CO, NO2, etc.
  • The destruction of water environment system is because of the mining waste residue and tailings in the atmosphere, and the oxidation of the sulfide precipitation has become acid rain.

produce of Highwall mining

Land drilling

Land drilling is a manufacture of holes on the surface of the earth, and then the extraction methods of energy. Usually used for collecting oil and natural gas.

History:

Before nineteenth Century, the internal combustion engine was invented, the main method of rock drilling or by human or animal body. The drilling of wells for the manufacture of salt began by the Song Dynasty in China. This version of the system mechanization, until about 1970. In the 1970s, roller bits using mud circulation were replaced by the first pneumatic reciprocating piston Reverse Circulation (RC) drills.

Production challenges:

The machine is more and more advanced, so the users are increasingly high requirements.

The geological structure is more and more complicated, because the geological structure of simple region has been developed.

The mineral is less and less, must have deeper mining, the greater the more dangerous it is, the greater the technical difficulty.

Environmental concerns:

Vegetation decrease, reduction in plant diversity.

The habitat of wild animals has been invaded, and their habitat has become smaller. Disruption of wildlife migration routes and habitats from noise pollution.

Oil spills on land and offshore drilling sites.

Haze, toxic chemicals and dust pollute the air and water.

Ocean drilling

Ocean drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed. It is typically carried out in order to explore for and subsequently extract petroleum which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. There are mainly two kinds of drilling platform, is Jack-up Drilling Platform and semi submersible Drilling Platform.

History:

One of the oldest subsea wells is the Bibi Eibat well, which came on stream in 1923 in Azerbaijan . The well was located on an artificial island in a shallow portion of the Caspian Sea.

When offshore drilling moved into deeper waters of up to 30 metres (98 ft), fixed platform rigs were built, until demands for drilling equipment was needed in the 100 feet (30 m) to 120 metres (390 ft) depth of the Gulf of Mexico, the first jack-up rigs began appearing from specialized offshore drilling contractors such as forerunners of ENSCO International.

The first semi-submersible resulted from an unexpected observation in 1961. Blue Water Drilling Company owned and operated the four-column submersible Blue Water Rig No.1 in the Gulf of Mexico for Shell Oil Company .

As of June, 2010, there were over 620 mobile offshore drilling rigs.

Production challenges:

Production and drilling facilities may be very large and a large investment, such as the Troll A platform standing on a depth of 300 meters.

Today is by separating water from oil and re-injecting it rather than pumping it up to a platform, or by flowing to onshore, with no installations visible above the sea.

Supplies and waste are transported by ship, and the supply deliveries need to be carefully planned because storage space on the platform is limited.

Environmental concerns:

Pollute the sea water, pollute the air.

The noise from seismic surveys can damage or kill fish eggs and larvae and impair the hearing and health of fish, making them susceptible to predators and making it challenging for them to locate prey or mates or communicate with each other.

Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, the most important oil spills from tanker or pipeline transport oil from platform to onshore facilities, and from the spill and accident platform.

Produced water is generated, the water is brought to the surface along with the oil and gas,it is usually highly saline and include dissolved or unseparated hydrocarbons.

Fracking

What is Fracking?

Hydraulic fracturing is the use of ground pressure pump, fracturing fluid through the wellbore to squeeze oil with a high viscosity. When the injected fracturing fluid speed exceed formation absorption ability, in the reservoir at the bottom of the well formed a high pressure, when the pressure exceeds the near the bottom of the reservoir rock breakdown pressure reservoir will be pressure to open and cracks.

How it is done?

Hydraulic fracturing is the use of ground pressure pump, through the wellbore to the oil layer with a higher viscosity of the fracturing fluid. When the injected fracturing fluid speed exceed formation absorption ability, in the reservoir at the bottom of the well formed a high pressure, when the pressure exceeds the near the bottom of the reservoir rock breakdown pressure reservoir will be pressure to open and cracks.

Hydraulic fracturing is the main form of exploitation of natural gas, with a large number of chemical substances containing water poured into the shale of hydraulic fracture to get natural gas.

Environmental effects:

the fracking can pollute water (including groundwater and surface water), thus threatening the local ecological environment and the health of residents. It will make the tap water spontaneous combustion, triggering a small earthquake, air pollution and emissions of methane.etc.

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Ruixin Jia