Bosnia Herzegovina

Divya Yarlagadda

About Bosnia Herzegovina

Bosnia Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia. Its geographical coordinates are 4400 N, 1800 E. This Country has hot summers and cold winters with many earthquakes. Most people here are Muslim or Orthodox along with Roman Catholic. The government is a federal democratic republic. The name Bosnia is derived from the Bosna River. Bosnia Herzegovina has lots of agricultural machinery for making cars, tractors and more.

Bosnia Herzegovina's Geography

Bosnia Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe.This country is slightly smaller than West Virginia. Its bordering countries are Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia. It has many earthquakes, hot summers and cold winters. Areas with high elevation have cool summers and severe winters that are mild and rainy. There are many natural resources here like coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, chromite, manganese, nickel, clay and salt. 42.8 % of the land is forest, 42.2 % agricultural, and 15 % is other. There are many hills and the highest point is Mt. Maglic which rises to 7,831 ft. The longest rive is the Bosna river at 772 km long. The average temperature is 37 degrees fahrenheit and the rainfall can reach up to 932.4 mm. The highest populated area in Bosnia Herzegovina in Sarajevo. Many people live here due to the many historical sites. Sarajevo doesn't have very good farming land so the have to have many different trade routes. You can get to Bosnia Herzegovina by plane and through it by train.

Bosnia Herzegovina's Government

Bosnia Herzegovina's government is a federal democratic republic. Bakir Izetbegovic is the current leader of Bosnia Herzegovina. Izetbegovic is the son of the first Bosnian president. At age 59, he was born on June 28, 1956. The law making body is the Parliamentary assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia Herzegovina has a limited government where the people have a say in the government and the government does not have all the power. Lately, there has been many protests, raging fires, and violence in this country. In Bosnia Herzegovina, though the healthcare is 95% cheaper than in the USA and there is a lower chance of people being imprisoned, there still are some disadvantages like having a higher chance of being unemployed. With the help of the United States, the 1992-95 war was ended in Bosnia Herzegovina. In 1995 the US agreed to the Dayton Agreement. The United States also donated hundreds of millions of dollars to Bosnia Herzegovina for infrastructure, humanitarian aid, economic development, and military reconstruction. The United Nations protection force helped bring peace to Bosnia Herzegovina by agreeing to the Peace Agreement.

Bosnia Herzegovina's Economy

Bosnia Herzegovina uses Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible Mark as its currency. One Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible mark is equal to 57 US cents or .57 US dollars. Bosnia Herzegovina has the111 largest export economy in the world. Bosnia Herzegovina exports seats, raw aluminum, leather foot wear, refined petroleum, vehicle parts, crude petroleum, cars, packaged medicaments, and coal briquettes. The top export destinations are Germany, Italy, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia. The GDP per capita here is $9,900 whereas, in the United States, the GDP per capita is $53,041. Bosnia Herzegovina is a poor country compared to the US. This is because it is more likely to be unemployed in Bosnia Herzegovina so people do not make as much money.

Social and Ethnic Groups

There are three major ethnic groups in Bosnia Herzegovina. 95% of the country are Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. The other 5% of the country is other. There are three levels of education in Bosnia Herzegovina. They are Primary school, Secondary education, and Tertiary education. Primary school is free for all children from 6-15, Secondary education is also free which is for ages 14-15. Tertiary education comprises of 8 universities which are University of Sarajevo, University of Tuzla, University of Mostar, University of Banja Luka, University of Dzemal Bijedic Mostar, University of East Sarajevo, University of Bihac, and University of Zenica. 35% of the women are involved in economic activity. Due to the violent war, Bosnia Herzegovina is still trying to rebuild itself along with children's rights. Though Bosnia Herzegovina is progressing in the means of children's justice and healthcare, poverty, social exclusion and discrimination still remain serious problems. In Bosnia Herzegovina women are still suffering from discrimination when getting jobs. Women who once had a public life now have to stay at home engaged in domestic duties. Male literacy rate is 99.5% and female literacy rate is 97.5%. This states that Almost all women and men in Bosnia Herzegovina are able to read and write and are able to go to school. 48% of the people in Bosnia Herzegovina are Bosniak, 33% are Serb, 15% are Croat and 4% is other. The Bosnian War took place from 1992-1995 and was caused by disagreements of ethnic groups. Luckily, in 1995 an agreement was signed to stop the war.

Bosnia Herzegovina's Religion, Language an Flag

There are three major languages in Bosnia Herzegovina. They are Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian. Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet. The word hrvatska [ khr-vaht-skah ] also means Croatian which is the language used for Croats. Serbian is mostly used by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro. 40% of the people are Muslim, 31% are Orthodox and 15% are Roman Catholic. The Bosnian flag is blue and green because they are the national colors. This flag was created in 1992. There are 7 stars on the flag two of them being half stars. The three points on the two half stars represent the three ethnicities.

Traditional Holidays and Celebrations

New Year in Bosnia Herzegovina is on January 1st and is also known as Nova Godina. Although they are on different dates, this holiday is celebrated the same way we celebrate New Year in The US, with fireworks, music and lights. The following day, the Second Day of the New Year also known as Drugi dan Nove Godine is celebrated. Many people in Bosnia Herzegovina wear traditional Croatian dresses. These are usually made of wool flax hemp and leather. Many people would either stitch their own clothes or get them professionally made. The food in Bosnia Herzegovina contain many spices and water which makes it very light. Typical meat dishes are made using Beef and Lamb. Some examples include cevapi , dulma and sarma which are specialties.
*All images found on google images

*All charts created on google sheets