By Kyra Clark
Newborns have the ability to distinguish different colors and pitches/volumes of sounds.
Around 3 months old, babies begin to recognize familiar faces and sounds.
6 month olds learn to understand the difference between animate and inanimate objects, as well as the correlation between an objects size and it's distance.
9 month olds learn to imitate gestures and understand that objects out of sight still exist. They also begin to learn simple words and test behavior.
At 12 months, infants develop attachments to objects, can speak around 4 words and associate objects with their names.
At 18 months, children can follow two tasked directions, like putting away toys and know up to 50 words.
Toddlers are expected to know up to 150 words and add 10 a day. Toddler hood the time when they begin to understand the concept of the word "please".
Preschoolers learn what behaviors are negative actions, such as lying and bullying. They also have an increased attention span and have an understanding structured routines.
Parents are very important in the early stages of cognitive development, as they have both an active role in helping further said development and in making sure there are no set backs. Through out infancy and toddler hood, a parents role is to play games that focus on the developmental stages that the child is in. This includes playing with toys, colors, reading and talking to the child to develop language skills.
When watching to make sure that the child is developing smoothly, it is important to focus on whether or not they achieve goals that they should have at that stage. For example, it would be a red flag if a 2 year old doesn't have the ability to speak in simple sentences or understand the use of everyday objects, as that is the age when language skills are expected to begin to advance and children should be using tools.
Adolescents see changes in capacity, as well as their function. Adolescents see increases in their working memory, along with verbal and spatial memory. This makes it easier to make decisions that involve multiple pieces of information, as well as remember information in the current moment.
Functional changes include changes in deductive reasoning and decision making. During adolescence, there are varying levels in the ability to make good decisions; there is no direct increase because of the fact that the older you are, the more knowledge you have. While some do make better decisions because of their ability to access the outcomes of a certain behavior, others are seen making poor decisions, due to strong emotions and increased risk taking, seen especially in older adolescents. The types of risks taken can vary be gender; for example, males are more likely to recklessly drive, whereas females are seen taking more health risks, like smoking.