The Cardiovascular System

Alison Heller

Overall blood characteristics

  • Plasma-55%
  • Erythrocytes-45%
  • Leukocytes-<1%
  • Platelets(Thrombocytes)-<1%

How much blood is in our bodies?

  • Male: 5-6L
  • Female: 4-5L
  • Equals 1-1.5gal

Where is blood produced?

  • Red bone marrow

What controls the production of blood

  • Erythropoietin(hormone)
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What it looks like and characteristics
  • Yellow fluid
  • 90% water

Function and how does it help maintain homeostasis?

  • Maintain blood flow
  • Plasma proteins are produced by the liver and makes up 7-9%
  • Albumin is most common and controls blood volume
  • Helps to maintain homeostasis by keeping cell contents in and foreign material out

Why people are paid to donate plasma. How does this work? How is it separated from the rest of the blood?

  • Plasma has proteins and some people don't have the ability to make them
  • The process works by drawing blood, separating the plasma, and red blood cells get returned to your body through a process called plasmapheresis
  • Plasma is separated by collecting the blood, then removing cells from the plasma through centrifugation using a refrigerated centrifuge
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(Erythrocytes) Red Blood Cells

What they look like and characteristics
  • Biconcave disk shaped
  • No nucleus
  • Formed in bone marrow
  • Filled with hemoglobin

Function and how they help to maintain homeostasis

  • Helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then return carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled
  • Helps to maintain homeostasis by transporting oxygen and hydrogen ions

Hematocrit test and how it works

  • It determines what portion of a sample of blood is red blood cells
  • How it works is they take a sample of your blood, puts it in a centrifuge and spins it really quickly which separates the blood into plasma, red blood cells, and other blood cells

Importance of hemoglobin and what a hemoglobin test is

  • Hemoglobin is what actually carries the oxygen to the rest of the body
  • A hemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin in your blood

What is anemia?

  • Condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in weariness and pallor

Describe the following and possible treatments for each...

  • Iron deficiency anemia: When your body doesn't have enough iron which helps make red blood cells. Treatments could be taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods
  • Hemolytic anemia: When red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over. Treatments could be blood transfusions, medicines, lifestyle changes, surgery and more
  • Hemorrhagic anemia: When there's a reduced delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Treatments could be surgery and blood transfusions
  • Sickle cell anemia: The body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells which tend to block blood flow and cause organ damage. Treatments could be taking medicines/fluids and hydroxyurea which is a medicine
  • Pernicious anemia: Decrease in red blood cells that occurs when your intestines cannot properly absorb vitamin B12. Treatments could be receiving shots every month or taking B12 supplements

What is polycythemia, what are some causes, and how can it be treated?

  • It's when there is an increased number of red blood cells in the blood
  • It can be caused from inherited genetic mutations, tumors, and sleep apnea can cause this also
  • Treatments could be taking certain medicines, or surgery

Process of donating blood. How often can it be done? How it's used? How long does the blood last?

  • They collect your blood and test it. After that they take it to a hospital
  • Your blood's used to save another persons life
  • Your blood is good for up to 42 days otherwise it perishes
  • You must wait at least 8 weeks to donate more whole blood

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(Leukocytes) White Blood Cells

Look like and characteristics
  • They are the buffy coat in the centrifuged blood
  • They eat things through phagocytosis
  • They're diapedesis(move through vessels/tissue)

Function and how the maintain homeostasis

  • They move through the body destroying bacteria and viruses but also help fight diseases.
  • They maintain homeostasis by fighting infections

5 types of white blood cells

  1. Neutrophils are the most common 60%, segmented nucleus, light purple, in acute bacterial infections, highly phagocyctic
  2. Eosinophils stains red/orange, bi-lobed nucleus, 2% total number, fights parasitic infections/breaks down antibody complex
  3. Basophils are the rarest with .0004%, bi-lobed nucleus, stains dark purple/blue, inflammation, contains heparin(anticoagulant)
  4. Lymphocytes are the second most with 31%, round nucleus with tiny cytoplasm, long lived/produce immunity, non-phagocytic and fights viruses
  5. Monocytes are also called macrophages, they're the largest, kidney shaped nucleus, highly phogocytic, fight chronic infections

Describe conditions and common treatments for each

  • Leukopenia: When you have a low count of white blood cells in the bloodstream. Treatments include using steroids to stimulate the bone marrow and being put on certain medication
  • Leukemia: Large number of abnormal white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Treatments consist of multiple different kind of therapy's or a stem cell transplant
  • Mononucleosis: Often called the kissing disease, an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus. There's not many ways to treat this but there are antiviral drugs available
  • Multiple Myeloma: Is a cancer of plasma cells. Treatments include multiple different kind of therapy's , stem cell transplant, or corticosteroids


What they look like and characteristics
  • Look like red or orange tire with arm like structures coming off
  • They're made in the bone marrow
  • Arise from megakaryocyte
  • Non-living
  • Break off from parent cells

Function and how they maintain homeostasis

  • They prevent bleeding
  • The maintain homeostasis by clotting your blood when you have an injury so you don't bleed out

Events that occur during hemostasis

  • Limits blood flow to area of injury
  • platelets become activated by thrombin and aggregate at the site of the injury forming a temporary plug
  • Clot forms and entraps the plug
  • Clot dissolved in order for normal blood flow to resume following tissue repair

What hemophilia is and how it's treated

  • A disorder that blood can not clot normally
  • Can be treated by replacement therapy
Differentiate between the following and what they're used to treat
  • Coumadin(warfarin): Prevents heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots in veins and arteries
  • Heparin: To treat and prevent blood clots in veins, arteries, and lungs. Also used for surgery to reduce risk of blood clots
  • Aspirin: Treats pain, and reduced inflammation and fever. Can be used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and chest pain. Should only be used for cardiovascular conditions
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