Cardiovascular System

Blood

Overall Blood Characteristics

Plasma- 55%

Red Blood Cells- 45%

White Blood Cells- 1%

Platelets- <1%


Females: 4-5L

Males: 5-6L

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Blood is produced in the red bone marrow, medullary cavities of children, and spongy bone of adults.

Production is caused by the need for oxygen and regulated by the kidneys.

Red Blood Cells

Erythrocytes

Red colored, no nucleas, thin in the middle

Carry oxygen to tissues by hemoglobin which attaches to RBC to keep tissues oxygenated. Also carries carbon dioxide away from tissues back to lungs.


A hematocrit test measures what proportion of blood is composed of RBC. Drawn blood is put through a centrifuge and spun so blood separates. Then the RBC are measured.


A hemoglobin test measures the hemoglobin levels of blood. Doctors draw blood to measure hemoglobin levels.

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Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells.


Iron Deficiency: Not enough hemoglobin in the RBC to carry oxygen.

Treatments: Iron supplements with Vitamin C or on an empty stomach, but not with anti-acids


Hemolytic: Occurs when RBC die quicker than the red bone marrow can replace them.

Treatments: Blood filtering, transfusion, removing of the spleen


Hemorrhagic: Anemia caused by loss of a lot of blood.

Treatments: Iron supplements or blood transfusion


Sickle Cell: Misshapen RBC caused by deformed hemoglobin that causes RBC to die prematurely.


Treatments: Blood transfusion, folic acid supplements, oxygen, and pain-relieving drugs or antibiotics like Hydroxurea.


Pernicious: Shortage of B-12 due to intestine infection or lacking diet

Treatmeants: Changes in diet, or supplement, or injections

Polycythemia

Causes: Mutated bone marrow makes too many RBC or other types of blood cells. Can thicken blood.

Treatments: Taking blood out of veins, asprin, hydroxyurea to inhibit, or Interferon Alpha will stimulate immune system to attack extra RBC.

White Blood Cells

Leukocytes

Have larger nuclear than RBC, engulf and digest foreign materials, can draw cells to area by chemical release, and can move through other tissues and cells.


Involved in immune system to keep the bacteria levels in our body normal, and to keep us healthy.

Granulocytes

Agranulocytes

Leukopenia

Decrease of neutrophils due to acute viral infections like colds or flues. Increased risk of bacterial and fungal infections. Medications are given to stimulate bone marrow in the production of WBC.

Leukemia

Cancer of the lymphatic system and bone marrows causing fewer healthy blood cells. For treatment, chemotherapy, stem cell transplants, radiation, or targeted therapy.

Mononucleosis

A virus called the kissing disease, results in elevated white blood cell count. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Results in extreme fatigue. Treatments include Advil or Ibuprofen to relieve pain.

Multiple Myeloma

A cancer of the plasma cells beginning in the bone marrow. Results in pain in the back, nausea, fever, or fatigue. Treatments include chemotherapy or steroid injections.

Thrombocytes

Platelets

Smaller than RBC and WBC. No nucleus, broken parts of cytoplasm

Cause blood to clot to stop bleeding.

Platelets gather at the bleeding site, then they stick to the edges; adhesion. Then they change shape and secret chemical messengers; activation. Lastly, they connect the bridges called aggregation. Then coagulation cascade forms a scab.

Hemophilia

Impairs the body's ability to form clots. Prevents the fibrin to make the clot withstanding.

Can be treated by injections of the lacking protein. Exercise is recommended to keep the body from bleeding in the first place.

Blood Thinners

Warfarin (commonly known as Coumadin)- Prevents new clots from forming and existing clots from getting worse.

Heparin- Prevents clotting before or after surgery.

Aspirin- Treats pain and fever, also reduces risk of heart attack

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Plasma

Plasma

55% of total blood volume

Liquid portion of the blood that allows blood to flow. Keeps electrolytes in balance and prevents infection. Contains proteins, hormones, glucose, and electolytes.

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Why do people donate plasma?

Plasma can be donated more often because plasma is replaced within 48 hours after donation. Regular donations take about an hour after the medical check-up takes place. Blood is taken out of veins, filtered out, and then the cells reenter blood stream, but plasma is taken out and frozen.

Donors then receive $10-100

biblio

"Biolife Plasma Donations." Donate Plasma. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Blood Disorders (Anemia, Leukopenia, and Thrombocytopenia)." LifeExtension.com. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Haemophilia." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Leukemia." Treatments and Drugs. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Life: Magnified" Online." - National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Mono (mononucleosis)." Student Health Services Mononucleosis. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Multiple Myeloma: Facts on Prognosis, Treatment, and Stages." MedicineNet. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Skeletal System Information." Skeletal System Information. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.